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Ohrid, Macedonia

Veljanoska-Sarafiloska E.M.,Hydrobiological Institute | Jordanoski M.,University of Macedonia | Stafilov T.,Ss. Cyril and Methodius University of Skopje
Journal of Environmental Science and Health - Part B Pesticides, Food Contaminants, and Agricultural Wastes

Organochlorine pesticides were determined in water and sediment samples collected from the littoral zone of Lake Prespa, as well as from its three main tributaries (the rivers Golema, Brajcinska and Kranska), during the period 2004 to 2006. In addition, muscle tissue samples of barbus fish (Barbus prespensis Karaman, 1928) collected from the littoral zone of Lake Prespa were also analysed. The obtained results give an overview of the contamination levels of these problematic compounds at their potential sources in the river mouths, in the potentially affected, species-rich littoral section of the lake and in the muscle tissue of one selected fish species, collected near the rivers' deltas. Special attention was paid to the presence of some DDT metabolites (1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethylene (p,p′-DDE); (1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethane (p,p′-DDD) and 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethane (p,p′-DDT). The extraction of pesticides from water samples was done by liquid-liquid partition in dichloromethane. For the sediment and fish tissue we used solid-liquid extraction. The extracted residues were analyzed on a gas chromatograph equipped with an electron capture detector (GC-ECD). The results of the respective studies indicated the presence of DDT metabolic forms in the samples of the three analysed matrixes. The highest levels of presence for these pollutants were found in the muscle tissue of the fish samples. The total DDTs content in the analysed muscle tissue samples range from 11.67 to 13.58 μg kg-1of fresh tissue. The average total DDTs content for the sediment samples were within the range of 2.32 to 4.17 μg kg-1 of dry sediment. Higher DDT metabolites content were found in the sediments collected from the rivers than in the samples from the littoral zone. The lowest average total concentrations of DDTs, on the other hand, were recorded in the water samples and ranged between 0.036 and 0.057 μg L-1. The obtained results indicated that the dominant metabolic form in the samples of the three investigated matrixes (water, sediment and fish tissue) from Lake Prespa was p,p′-DDE. There was a very good linear correlation in this study between the content of DDT's (total DDT metabolites) detected and the percentage of total organic material in the sediment. The detected concentrations are clearly below the toxicity thresholds; consequently, severe effects on the endemic species of Lake Prespa are not very likely. © 2013 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC. Source

Veljanoska-Sarafiloska E.M.,Hydrobiological Institute | Stafilov T.,Ss. Cyril and Methodius University of Skopje
Acta Zoologica Bulgarica

The organochlorine pesticides have been detected in the samples of sediment and muscle tissue of barbell (Barbus peloponnesius, Valenciennes, (1842); Barbus macedonicus, Karaman (1924), collected from the three natural lake ecosystems in the Republic of Macedonia, i.e. Lake Ohrid, Lake Prespa and Lake Dojran, in the period from 2004 to 2006. Special attention has been paid to the presence of the insecticide DDT degradation products, 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(p- chlorophenyl) ethane (p,p'-DDT), 1,1-dichloro-2,2- bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethylene (p,p'-DDE) and 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethane (p,p'-DDD), as dominant components in comparison to the other organochlorine pesticides. The results that have been obtained indicated that dominant metabolic forms in the samples of sediment from Lake Ohrid and Lake Prespa is p,p'-DDE. The mean values for the content of this forms has been estimated at 0.84 μg kg-1 dry sediment in the samples collected from Ohrid and 1.56 μg kg-1 dry sediment in the samples from Lake Prespa. In the samples of sediment that have been collected from Lake Dojran, the dominant was the p,p'-DDT form, while it's content has been estimated at 4.06 μg kg-1 dry sediment. The highest values for the content of the sum of DDT metabolic forms in the fish muscle tissue have been evidenced in the samples of fish collected from Lake Dojran and the average value of this sum has been estimated at 16.38 μg kg-1 fresh tissue. The dominant metabolic forms for the analyzed muscle tissues of fish for all three lake ecosystems has been p,p'-DDE. The content of this form have been estimated at 5.98 μg kg-1, 7.21 μg kg-1 and 9.77 μg kg-1 for the samples collected from Lake Ohrid, Lake Prespa and Lake Dojran, respectively. Thus, the highest evidenced value for the presence of p,p'-DDE has been recorded for the samples collected from Lake Dojran, i.e. 9,77 μg kg-1 fresh tissue. Source

Veljanoska-Sarafiloska E.,Hydrobiological Institute | Stafilov T.,University of Macedonia | Jordanoski M.,University of Macedonia
Fresenius Environmental Bulletin

In the period from 2004-2006, investigations of 1,1,1trichloro-2,2-bis(4- chlorophenyl)ethane (DDT) in littoral sediments and the muscle tissue of the bottom-dwelling fish (Barbus macedonicus Karaman) have been conducted in Lake Dojran, Republic of Macedonia. Special emphasis was given to the presence the DDT degradation products 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2- bis(p-chlorophenyl) ethane (p,p'-DDT), 1,1 -dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethylene (p,p' -DDE) and 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethane (p,p'-DDD). Sediment samples showed a dominance of p,p'-DDT, ranging from 3.55 μg kg -1 to 5.01 μg kg -1 of sediment dry mass, whereas p,p'-DDE was dominant in the muscle tissue of the bottom-dwelling fish Barbus macedonicus Karaman, with contents between 8.98 μg kg -1 and 10.85 μg kg -1 fresh tissue. Although DDT concentrations were below international health standards they may increase anthropogenic pressure on the unique and vulnerable ecosystem of Lake Dojran. The general findings underline the long period of intensive usage of DDT in the Southern Balkans, as well as its great persistence in agriculturally impacted surface waters. Furthermore, DDT-ratios in the sediment indicated use after the official ban of the pesticide, a situation, which may be representative for a range of surface waters in southeastern Europe. © by PSP. Source

Hahn C.,University of Oslo | Hahn C.,University of Hull | Weiss S.J.,University of Graz | Stojanovski S.,Hydrobiological Institute | Bachmann L.,University of Oslo

Co-speciation is a fundamental concept of evolutionary biology and intuitively appealing, yet in practice hard to demonstrate as it is often blurred by other evolutionary processes. We investigate the phylogeographic history of the monogenean ectoparasites Gyrodactylus teuchis and G. truttae on European salmonids of the genus Salmo. Mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 and the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer 2 were sequenced for 189 Gyrodactylus individuals collected from 50 localities, distributed across most major European river systems, from the Iberian- to the Balkan Peninsula. Despite both anthropogenic and naturally caused admixture of the principal host lineages among major river basins, co-phylogenetic analyses revealed significant global congruence for host and parasite phylogenies, providing firm support for co-speciation of G. teuchis and its salmonid hosts brown trout (S. trutta) and Atlantic salmon (S. salar). The major split within G. teuchis, coinciding with the initial divergence of the hosts was dated to ~1.5 My BP, using a Bayesian framework based on an indirect calibration point obtained from the host phylogeny. The presence of G. teuchis in Europe thus predates some of the major Pleistocene glaciations. In contrast, G. truttae exhibited remarkably low intraspecific genetic diversity. Given the direct life cycle and potentially high transmission potential of gyrodactylids, this finding is interpreted as indication for a recent emergence (<60 ky BP) of G. truttae via a host-switch. Our study thus suggests that instances of two fundamentally different mechanisms of speciation (co-speciation vs. host-switching) may have occurred on the same hosts in Europe within a time span of less than 1.5 My in two gyrodactylid ectoparasite species. © 2015 Hahn et al. Source

Simic V.,University of Kragujevac | Simic S.,University of Kragujevac | Paunovic M.,University of Belgrade | Radojkovic N.,University of Kragujevac | And 3 more authors.
Science of the Total Environment

In this study, we aimed to assess the population status of bleak (Alburnus spp.) over the Western Balkan Peninsula in terms of its sustainable use. A second objective was to determine key factors important for fishery management planning. Two different basins, continental (the Danube Basin and the Sava River sub-basin) and marine (the Adriatic and the Aegean Sea Basins) were examined. A sustainability assessment and factor analysis were conducted using the adjusted ESHIPPOfishing model, extended with additional socio-economic sub-elements, and the categorical principal components analysis (CATPCA), respectively. The results of the assessment revealed the bleak populations in the Danube Basin and the Sava River sub-basin to be highly sustainable. The population characteristics with abiotic and biotic factors were responsible for this status, while the influence of socio-economic factors was insignificant. The sustainability status of the bleak populations of the Mediterranean basin varied, with the populations from Ohrid and Skadar Lakes showing a high and those from Prespa and Dojran Lakes a medium status. Socio-economic factors with traditional fishing were the most important for the Mediterranean bleak populations. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. Source

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