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Santa Fe, NM, United States

Groeneveld D.P.,HydroBio | Huntington J.L.,Desert Research Institute | Barz D.D.,HydroBio
Journal of Hydrology | Year: 2010

Owens Lake, California, a saline terminal lake desiccated after diversion of its water source, was formerly the single largest anthropogenic source of fugitive dust in North America. Over 100billion m-3yr-1 of fresh water are projected to be used for mandated dust control in over 100km2 of constructed basins required to be wetted to curtail emissions. An extensive evaporite deposit is located at the lake's topographic low and adjacent to the dust control basins. Because this deposit is non-dust-emissive, it was investigated as a potential replacement for the fresh water used in dust control. The deposit consists of precipitated layers of sodium carbonate and sulfate bathed by, and covered with brine dominated by sodium chloride perennially covered with floating salt crust. Evaporation (E) rates through this crust were measured using a static chamber during the period of highest evaporative demand, late June and early July, 2009. Annualized total E from these measurements was significantly below average annual precipitation, thus ensuring that such salt deposits naturally remain wet throughout the year, despite the arid climate. Because it remains wetted, the evaporite deposit may therefore have the potential to replace fresh water to achieve dust control at near zero water use. © 2010. Source

Groeneveld D.P.,HydroBio | Barz D.D.,HydroBio
Remote Sensing Letters | Year: 2010

Atmospheric scatter of red and near-infrared (NIR) reflectance was studied by the extraction of pixel values over clear deep water, cloud tops, and smoke plumes from Landsat 5 Thematic Mapper data. A highly precise relationship (r2 = 0.9994) was found for scatter in red versus NIR bands (B3 = 0.9276×B4 + 0.19). The combination of scatter measurements for smoke, ice crystals and water droplets demonstrated the utility for this relationship across widely different aerosol types. Similarly, QuickBird data were found to fit the relationship despite significantly different relative spectral responses, demonstrating robustness for application of the relationship to similar sensors. © 2010 Taylor & Francis. Source

Groeneveld D.P.,HydroBio | Barz D.D.,HydroBio
Journal of Hydrology | Year: 2014

A bathymetry model was developed from a series of Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) images to assist discrimination of hydrologic processes on a low-relief, stable saline playa in Dixie Valley, Nevada, USA. The slope of the playa surface, established by field survey on a reference transect, enabled calculation of relative elevation of the edges of pooled brine mapped from Landsat TM5 band 5 reflectance (TMB5) in the 1.55-1.75. μm shortwave infrared region (SWIR) of the spectrum. A 0.02 TMB5 reflectance threshold accurately differentiated the shallow (1-2. mm depth) edges of pools. Isocontours of equal elevations of pool margins were mapped with the TMB5 threshold, forming concentric rings that were assigned relative elevations according to the position that the pool edges intersected the reference transect. These data were used to fit a digital elevation model and a curve for estimating pooled volume given the distance from the playa edge to the intersection of the pool edge with the reference transect.To project pooled volume using the bathymetric model for any TM snapshot, within a geographic information system, the 0.02 TMB5 threshold is first used to define the edge of the exposed brine. The distance of this edge from the playa edge along the reference transect is then measured and input to the bathymetric equation to yield pooled volume. Other satellite platforms with appropriate SWIR bands require calibration to Landsat TMB5. The method has applicability for filling reservoirs, bodies of water that fluctuate and especially bodies of water inaccessible to acoustic or sounding methods. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. Source

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