Innsbruck, Austria
Innsbruck, Austria

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Sitzenfrei R.,University of Innsbruck | Mair M.,Hydro it GmbH | Moderl M.,University of Innsbruck | Rauch W.,University of Innsbruck
Water Science and Technology | Year: 2011

One of the major tasks in urban water management is failure-free operation for at least most of the time. Accordingly, the reliability of the network systems in urban water management has a crucial role. The failure of a component in these systems impacts potable water distribution and urban drainage. Therefore, water distribution and urban drainage systems are categorized as critical infrastructure. Vulnerability is the degree to which a system is likely to experience harm induced by perturbation or stress. However, for risk assessment, we usually assume that events and failures are singular and independent, i.e. several simultaneous events and cascading events are unconsidered. Although failures can be causally linked, a simultaneous consideration in risk analysis is hardly considered. To close this gap, this work introduces the term cascade vulnerability for water infrastructure. Cascade vulnerability accounts for cascading and simultaneous events. Following this definition, cascade risk maps are a merger of hazard and cascade vulnerability maps. In this work cascade vulnerability maps for water distribution systems and urban drainage systems based on the 'Achilles-Approach' are introduced and discussed. It is shown, that neglecting cascading effects results in significant underestimation of risk scenarios. © IWA Publishing 2011.


Burger G.,University of Innsbruck | Fach S.,University of Innsbruck | Kinzel H.,Hydro it GmbH | Rauch W.,University of Innsbruck
Water Science and Technology | Year: 2010

Integrated urban drainage modelling is used to analyze how existing urban drainage systems respond to particular conditions. Based on these integrated models, researchers and engineers are able to e.g. estimate long-term pollution effects, optimize the behaviour of a system by comparing impacts of different measures on the desired target value or get new insights on systems interactions. Although the use of simplified conceptual models reduces the computational time significantly, searching the enormous vector space that is given by comparing different measures or that the input parameters span, leads to the fact, that computational time is still a limiting factor. Owing to the stagnation of single thread performance in computers and the rising number of cores one needs to adapt algorithms to the parallel nature of the new CPUs to fully utilize the available computing power. In this work a new developed software tool named CD3 for parallel computing in integrated urban drainage systems is introduced. From three investigated parallel strategies two showed promising results and one results in a speedup of up to 4.2 on an eight-way hyperthreaded quad core CPU and shows even for all investigated sewer systems significant run-time reductions. © IWA Publishing 2010.


Sitzenfrei R.,University of Innsbruck | Fach S.,University of Innsbruck | Kinzel H.,Hydro IT GmbH | Rauch W.,University of Innsbruck
Water Science and Technology | Year: 2010

Analyses of case studies are used to evaluate new or existing technologies, measures or strategies with regard to their impact on the overall process. However, data availability is limited and hence, new technologies, measures or strategies can only be tested on a limited number of case studies. Owing to the specific boundary conditions and system properties of each single case study, results can hardly be generalized or transferred to other boundary conditions. virtual infrastructure benchmarking (VIBe) is a software tool which algorithmically generates virtual case studies (VCSs) for urban water systems. System descriptions needed for evaluation are extracted from VIBe whose parameters are based on real world case studies and literature. As a result VIBe writes Input files for water simulation software as EPANET and EPA SWMM. With such input files numerous simulations can be performed and the results can be benchmarked and analysed stochastically at a city scale. In this work the approach of VIBe is applied with parameters according to a section of the Inn valley and therewith 1,000 VCSs are generated and evaluated. A comparison of the VCSs with data of real world case studies shows that the real world case studies fit within the parameter ranges of the VCSs. Consequently, VIBe tackles the problem of limited availability of case study data. © IWA Publishing 2010.


Mair M.,Hydro IT GmbH | Sitzenfrei R.,University of Innsbruck | Kleidorfer M.,University of Innsbruck | Moderl M.,University of Innsbruck | Rauch W.,University of Innsbruck
Water Science and Technology | Year: 2012

Sensitivity analysis (SA) evaluates the impact of changes in model parameters on model predictions. Such an analysis is commonly used when developing or applying environmental models to improve the understanding of underlying system behaviours and the impact and interactions of model parameters. The novelty of this paper is a geo-referenced visualization of sensitivity indices for model parameters in a combined sewer model using geographic information system (GIS) software. The result is a collection of maps for each analysis, where sensitivity indices (calculated for model parameters of interest) are illustrated according to a predefined symbology. In this paper, four types of maps (an uncertainty map, calibration map, vulnerability map, and design map) are created for an example case study. This article highlights the advantages and limitations of GIS-based SA of sewer models. The conclusion shows that for all analyzed applications, GIS-based SA is useful for analyzing, discussing and interpreting the model parameter sensitivity and its spatial dimension. The method can lead to a comprehensive view of the sewer system. © IWA Publishing 2012.


Kleidorfer M.,University of Innsbruck | Moderl M.,University of Innsbruck | Tscheikner-Gratl F.,University of Innsbruck | Hammerer M.,Hammerer System Messtechnik | And 2 more authors.
Water Science and Technology | Year: 2013

Building measures in sewer systems are increasingly driven by rehabilitation/retrofitting and adaptation needs. Aging infrastructure together with changing boundary conditions (due to climate change, land-use change, demographic change) and also changing design standards and legislation require a prospective design to preserve the functionality of urban drainage systems not only today, but also in a long-term perspective. To improve a prospective design of urban water infrastructure, the Austrian Research Promotion Agency funded the research project 'REHAB - Integrated planning of rehabilitation strategies of urban infrastructure systems'. Therein a novel strategic planning tool which considers these external drivers of rehabilitation strategies is developed. In this study the scope of the project is described and, as well as first results regarding sewer pipe conditions, future development and vulnerability assessment are also discussed. © IWA Publishing 2013.


Moderl M.,Hydro IT GmbH | Sitzenfrei R.,University of Innsbruck | Rauch W.,University of Innsbruck
GWF, Wasser - Abwasser | Year: 2012

In this article a method for vulnerability and risk analysis is introduced which aims to minimize the potenzial damage of a contamination event. The planning of pro-active and emergency actions is supported with the results of the approach. On the one hand, sites for sensors in a network for an early warning system and protected areas can be identified in the frame of security planning. In an emergency case, sites for flushing and injection of disinfection substances can be identified to eliminate the contamination efficiently. Core of the Achilles-approach is the spatial sensitivity analysis using hydraulic and water quality simulations of the entire water distribution system. Further, this innovative method supports the detection of contamination sources.


Leonhardt G.,University of Innsbruck | Fach S.,University of Innsbruck | Engelhard C.,University of Innsbruck | Kinzel H.,Hydro IT GmbH | Rauch W.,University of Innsbruck
Water Science and Technology | Year: 2012

A new methodology for online estimation of excess flow from combined sewer overflow (CSO) structures based on simulation models is presented. If sufficient flow and water level data from the sewer system is available, no rainfall data are needed to run the model. An inverse rainfall-runoff model was developed to simulate net rainfall based on flow and water level data. Excess flow at all CSO structures in a catchment can then be simulated with a rainfall-runoff model. The method is applied to a case study and results show that the inverse rainfall-runoff model can be used instead of missing rain gauges. Online operation is ensured by software providing an interface to the SCADAsystem of the operator and controlling the model. A water quality model could be included to simulate also pollutant concentrations in the excess flow. © IWA Publishing 2012.


Sitzenfrei R.,University of Innsbruck | Moderl M.,Hydro IT GmbH | Fritsch E.,Ingenieurburo Passer and Partner Ziviltechniker GmbH andechstrasse 65 | Rauch W.,University of Innsbruck
Osterreichische Wasser- und Abfallwirtschaft | Year: 2012

This article describes a vulnerability assessment based on the spatial sensitivity analysis, as part of the "Achilles Approach" for reliable operation of combined sewer systems. A selection of thematic maps for combined sewer systems (sewer collapse, failure of combined sewer overflows or pump failure) is presented and their application demonstrated using three case studies -Götzis, Hall in Tyrol and Innsbruck. It is shown how these thematic maps can be used for planning proactive actions. It is also demonstrated how causal linking of failure of combined sewer overflows and pump station (cascading failure) can be investigated systematically to support an efficient planning of preventive measures such as redundant pumps stations or installation of an emergency power supply. In addition, a capacity map identifying the most effective sites for new storage volumes is presented as "positive" interpretation of such a sensitivity map. This thematic map supports the planning process and ensures the efficient use of resources. © 2012 Springer-Verlag.


PubMed | Monash University, hydro IT GmbH and University of Innsbruck
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Water science and technology : a journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research | Year: 2014

Research in urban water management has experienced a transition from traditional model applications to modelling water cycles as an integrated part of urban areas. This includes the interlinking of models of many research areas (e.g. urban development, socio-economy, urban water management). The integration and simulation is realized in newly developed frameworks (e.g. DynaMind and OpenMI) and often assumes a high knowledge in programming. This work presents a Web based urban water management modelling platform which simplifies the setup and usage of complex integrated models. The platform is demonstrated with a small application example on a case study within the Alpine region. The used model is a DynaMind model benchmarking the impact of newly connected catchments on the flooding behaviour of an existing combined sewer system. As a result the workflow of the user within a Web browser is demonstrated and benchmark results are shown. The presented platform hides implementation specific aspects behind Web services based technologies such that the user can focus on his main aim, which is urban water management modelling and benchmarking. Moreover, this platform offers a centralized data management, automatic software updates and access to high performance computers accessible with desktop computers and mobile devices.


PubMed | Hydro IT GmbH
Type: Evaluation Studies | Journal: Water science and technology : a journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research | Year: 2012

Sensitivity analysis (SA) evaluates the impact of changes in model parameters on model predictions. Such an analysis is commonly used when developing or applying environmental models to improve the understanding of underlying system behaviours and the impact and interactions of model parameters. The novelty of this paper is a geo-referenced visualization of sensitivity indices for model parameters in a combined sewer model using geographic information system (GIS) software. The result is a collection of maps for each analysis, where sensitivity indices (calculated for model parameters of interest) are illustrated according to a predefined symbology. In this paper, four types of maps (an uncertainty map, calibration map, vulnerability map, and design map) are created for an example case study. This article highlights the advantages and limitations of GIS-based SA of sewer models. The conclusion shows that for all analyzed applications, GIS-based SA is useful for analyzing, discussing and interpreting the model parameter sensitivity and its spatial dimension. The method can lead to a comprehensive view of the sewer system.

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