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Oslo, Norway

The Raw Materials Initiative of the European Union (EU), which aims to "boost overall resource efficiency and promote recycling to reduce the EU's consumption of primary raw materials and decrease the relative import dependence", is currently implemented on the national and industry levels. This paper discusses the interpretation of the different indicators used to evaluate the resource efficiency of materials using the example of aluminium. Aluminium is used mainly in long-life applications, like building, transport and engineering, with only packaging materials having a short lifespan. One inventory in use states that about 700 Mt has been accumulated, accounting for 75% of the primary metal ever produced. This metal stock is the future source of raw material and energy in which we have invested. In 2010 about 50 Mt of aluminium entered the use phase as finished products. In the same year 11 Mt of end-of-life scrap was collected for recycling. In other words, less than a quarter of the current aluminium demand is covered by scrap from used products. It becomes problematical if this statistical indicator is used as a criterion for recycling performance. The recycled content of aluminium products is not low because of inefficient recycling but because of increasing demand for long-life products, driven by the need for the unique metallic properties of the lightweight metal. Consequently, growth in demand and an increasing lifespan determine the share of recycled metal in the global production of aluminium. Additionally, trade in scrap and products influence the regional results. © 2012 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source


Aretz H.,Hydro Aluminium
International Journal of Engineering Science | Year: 2010

An extension of the classical localized necking model according to Hill [25] is proposed, with special reference to forming limit strain prediction of orthotropic sheet metals. Due to its computational efficiency the proposed model is an appealing alternative to the popular and more advanced Marciniak-Kuczyński model [34,35] with variable imperfection orientation. The proposed model is expected of being very beneficial when computationally demanding constitutive models are used, for example deformation texture models. Application examples demonstrate the capabilities of the developed localized necking model. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source


Hirsch J.,Hydro Aluminium
Materials Transactions | Year: 2011

The main Aluminium applications as state-of-the-art in European cars are presented. The main established Aluminium alloys and their application in automotive parts are presented together with recent developments. Also new studies and innovative multi-material concepts are discussed where Aluminium light-weight solutions are compared with that of other materials, like new steels, magnesium, plastics and composites. In the "SLC" (Super-Light-Car) project these new concepts were tested in a multi-material body-in-white prototype for a VW Golf V car, reaching a 34% weight reduction within a cost increment of 7,8 €/kg saved, with suitable technologies for high volume assembly cycles. In the final SLC concept Aluminium is the material of choice, proving its leading role in innovative light-weighting of cars. Aluminium achieves weight savings of parts up to 50% while maintaining safety and performance in a cost efficient way, competing efficiently with other light-weight materials. © 2011 The Japan Institute of Light Metals. Source


Hirsch J.,Hydro Aluminium
Transactions of Nonferrous Metals Society of China (English Edition) | Year: 2014

Aspects of material selection and innovative concepts of car construction using aluminium as best suited light-weight materials were presented, and recent development in established and advanced use of aluminium in passenger cars was discussed that help to meet economic and environmental requirements. 5xxx and 6xxx aluminium alloys were presented that have been improved for the increasing demands regarding higher strength and better formability, resulting in a mass reduction and improved crashworthiness. Furthermore, advances concerning multi-material light weight design were presented by examples for aluminium solutions in advanced "Multi-material" Super-Light-Car (SLC) concepts, which reaches significant mass reductions. © 2014 The Nonferrous Metals Society of China. Source


Patent
Hydro Aluminium | Date: 2015-12-21

The invention relates to a brazable three-layered aluminium composite material having at least three layers with at least two different aluminium alloys, whereby an inner layer of the at least three layers is an aluminium brazing layer made from an aluminium brazing alloy, the other layers are configured as covering layers and include at least one further aluminium alloy, wherein the at least one further aluminium alloy has a higher solidus temperature than the liquidus temperature of the aluminium brazing alloy. The individual covering layers have a thickness which exceeds the thickness of the aluminium brazing layer by at least a factor of 1.5, preferably by a factor of 5. The brazable aluminium composite material is simply structured, has good brazing properties for the production of butt-joint brazing connections, significantly reduces the risk of a burning through of brazed-on components and provides sufficient mechanical properties.

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