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Wad Medani, Sudan

Zaroug M.A.H.,International Center for Theoretical Physics | Zaroug M.A.H.,Dinder Center for Environmental Research | Zaroug M.A.H.,Hydraulics Research Center | Giorgi F.,International Center for Theoretical Physics | And 3 more authors.
Hydrology and Earth System Sciences | Year: 2014

We simulate the observed statistical relationship between ENSO and the rainfall regime of the upper Blue Nile using the tropical-band version of the regional climate model RegCM4 (or Reg-TB). An ensemble of nine simulations for the 28-year period 1982-2009 is completed to investigate the role of ENSO in modulating rainfall over the upper Blue Nile catchment. Reg-TB shows a good skill in simulating the climatology of temperature, outgoing long-wave radiation patterns as well as related atmospheric circulation features during the summer season (i.e. the rainy season over the Blue Nile catchment). The model also succeeds in reproducing the observed negative correlation between Pacific SST and rainfall anomalies over the Blue Nile catchment, and in particular the association of droughts over the Blue Nile with El Ninõ events that start in April-June. We thus propose that observations and model forecasts of Pacific SST during this season could be used in seasonal forecasting of summer rainfall over the upper Blue Nile region. Source


Ngirazie L.A.,Cranfield University | Bushara A.I.,Hydraulics Research Center | Knox J.W.,Cranfield University
Water International | Year: 2015

In many countries, water user associations (WUAs) have assumed responsibility for managing irrigation systems, but their performance is known to vary markedly. This study assessed WUAs in the Gash spate irrigation project in Sudan, a decade after their initiation. Fieldwork involved a farmer survey, focus group discussions, benchmarking, and interviews with key informants. Overall, performance was found to be average, but with wide variation between individual WUAs. Performance indicators relating to jurisdiction over hydraulic boundaries and water delivery were poor. A lack of institutional arrangements and land ownership issues also strongly influenced performance. The management system for coordinating WUAs was found to be unnecessarily complex. © 2015 International Water Resources Association. Source


Wheeler K.G.,University of Oxford | Basheer M.,University of Khartoum | Mekonnen Z.T.,University of California at Los Angeles | Eltoum S.O.,Hydraulics Research Center | And 5 more authors.
Water International | Year: 2016

Strategies for filling the Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam and implications for downstream water resources are analyzed using a river basin planning model with a wide range of historical hydrological conditions and increasing coordination between the co-riparian countries. The analysis finds that risks to water diversions in Sudan can be largely managed through adaptations of Sudanese reservoir operations. The risks to Egyptian users and energy generation can be minimized through combinations of sufficient agreed annual releases from the Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam, a drought management policy for the High Aswan Dam, and a basin-wide cooperative agreement that protects the elevation of Lake Nasser. © 2016 International Water Resources Association Source


Zaroug M.A.H.,Dinder Center for Environmental Research | Zaroug M.A.H.,International Center for Theoretical Physics | Zaroug M.A.H.,Hydraulics Research Center | Sylla M.B.,International Center for Theoretical Physics | And 3 more authors.
Theoretical and Applied Climatology | Year: 2013

We used the regional climate model RegCM3 to investigate the role of the swamps of southern Sudan in affecting the climate of the surrounding region. Towards this end, we first assessed the performance of a high resolution version of the model over northern Africa. RegCM3 shows a good skill in simulating the climatology of rainfall and temperature patterns as well as the related circulation features during the summer season, outperforming previous coarser resolution applications of the model over this region. Sensitivity experiments reveal that, relative to bare soil conditions, the swamps act to locally modify the surface energy budget primarily through an increase of surface latent heat flux. Existence of the swamps leads to lower ground temperature (up to 2 °C), a larger north-south temperature gradient, and increased local rainfall (up to 40 %). Of particular importance is the impact on rainfall in the surrounding regions. The swamps have almost no impact on the rainfall over the source region of the Nile in Ethiopia or in the Sahel region; however, they favor wetter conditions over central Sudan (up to 15 %) in comparison to the bare desert soil conditions. © 2012 Springer-Verlag. Source


Ali Y.S.A.,UNESCO IHE | Ali Y.S.A.,Hydraulics Research Center | Ali Y.S.A.,Technical University of Delft | Crosato A.,UNESCO IHE | And 6 more authors.
International Journal of Sediment Research | Year: 2014

Rapid population growth in the upper Blue Nile basin has led to fast land-use changes from natural forest to agricultural land. This resulted in speeding up the soil erosion process in the highlands and increasing sedimentation further downstream in reservoirs and irrigation canals. At present, several dams are planned across the Blue Nile River in Ethiopia and the Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam is currently under construction near the border with Sudan. This will be the largest hydroelectric power plant in Africa. The objective of this paper is to quantify the river flows and sediment loads along the Blue Nile River network. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool was used to estimate the water flows from un-gauged sub-basins. To assess model performance, the estimated sediment loads were compared to the measured ones at selected locations. For the gauged sub-basins, water flows and sediment loads were derived from the available flow and sediment data. To fill in knowledge gaps, this study included a field survey in which new data on suspended solids and flow discharge were collected along the Blue Nile and on a number of tributaries. The comparison between the results of this study and previous estimates of the sediment load of the Blue Nile River at El Deim, near the Ethiopian Sudanese border, show that the sediment budgets have the right order of magnitude, although some uncertainties remain. This gives confidence in the results of this study providing the first sediment balance of the entire Blue Nile catchment at the sub-basin scale. © 2014 International Research and Training Centre on Erosion and Sedimentation and the World Association for Sedimentation and Erosion Research. Source

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