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Sydney, Australia

Lau R.,Hyder Consulting Pty Ltd.
14th Australasian Tunnelling Conference 2011: Development of Underground Space, Proceedings | Year: 2011

The fire safety design for road tunnels includes the following aspects: active systems, passive provisions and operational procedures. The active systems include the smoke control system, fire suppression system, detection system and fire fighter's assistance systems. Passive provisions include escape passages, fire separation and fire resistance systems. The operational procedures refer to fire fighter access, reporting and alerts, evacuation processes and crowd control. Currently, these systems are typically designed by different designers or teams. These systems are intended to work together in a coordinated manner to provide the desired safety outcome. However, in practice, this is not always happening. The fire engineering process is supposed to bring together all these aspects and arrive at an integrated safety system. The fire engineering process in practice is not integrating the design with the practice or reality and is thus arriving at less than desirably efficient safety systems. The example of design inputs shows how disconnected each system design basis is. The smoke control system design is based on the design fire size. The performance of the smoke control system is to achieve a smoke free environment for a defined space for a particular fire size - the design fire. The fire suppression system - most commonly sprinklers or deluge systems, is designed according to codes and to achieve a certain water discharge rate. The fire detection system is designed to detect temperature rise/rate of rise and perhaps density of smoke. Fire separation is determined to provide a certain period of service - mostly for structural elements. Escape route size and location is determined mostly by code compliance. Evacuation procedures are determined by Authority operational requirements rather than human behaviour. To arrive at an integrated fire safety system, the design basis and performances must be coordinated. An approach using fire scenarios would ensure all systems are designed to a common performance requirement. This paper will discuss how the current design approach outcomes compared with a fire scenario approach. More effective and efficient fire safety systems would require the stake holders to understand the implication of this approach and to embrace this through the fire engineering process.

Harris S.K.,Hyder Consulting Pty Ltd. | McIlquham J.D.,Golder Associates
20th Australasian Coastal and Ocean Engineering Conference 2011 and the 13th Australasian Port and Harbour Conference 2011, COASTS and PORTS 2011 | Year: 2011

The design of large berth structures can be optimised through close collaboration between the client, the contractor and maritime and geotechnical design engineers. Such a collaborative approach was adopted for the design of berth structures for the Port Botany Expansion project. This paper will discuss the methods that were used during the project to produce an efficient, cost effective berth structure design. These include; selection of an appropriate procurement model, development of comprehensive performance criteria, development of a carefully considered design approach and load criteria, and implementation of cost effective and innovative design solutions. A selection of key aspects of design which drove a value for money solution include; a considered approach to the prediction of crack widths, a method of aligning predicted earth pressures with predicted structural response, design of modular precast elements, design of continuous crane rail beams (e.g. 2km continuous cope beam understood to be largest such structure in the world), and development of trials, testing and monitoring regimes to confirm acceptable earth pressure limits were not exceeded during vibrocompaction of reclaimed fill behind the berth structures. The 65ha reclaimed terminal provides five post-panamax container berths and tug berths of counterfort gravity wall construction (645t units & 22m retained height).

Kirkland B.,University of Western Sydney | Kirkland B.,University of New South Wales | Kim P.,Hyder Consulting Pty Ltd. | Kim P.,University of New South Wales | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Constructional Steel Research | Year: 2015

Abstract Composite steel-concrete beams are frequently used in situations where axial forces are introduced. Some examples include the use in cable-stayed bridges or inclined members in stadia and bridge approach spans. In these situations, the beam may be subjected to any combination of flexure, shear and axial loads. However, modern steel and composite construction codes currently do not address the effects of these combined actions. This study presents an analysis of composite beams subjected to combined loading. A finite element model (FEM) has been developed and the results derived from the model show excellent agreement with existing FEM and experimental results. The effect of compression and tension loads on a member subjected to flexure and shear is also explored. Design models are proposed for estimating the flexure and shear interaction of an axially loaded member. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.

Chen C.,Aurecon Hong Kong Ltd | Niu J.,GeoAlliance Consultants Pte Ltd | Zhang H.,Parsons Brinckerhoff | Yau S.,Hyder Consulting Pty Ltd.
Geotechnical Special Publication | Year: 2014

Much attention has been paid in the past to study the potential impact of piled foundations onto existing tunnels in the vicinity. However, relatively less study has been done to investigate the performance/behaviour of existing foundation piles due to tunnelling works. This paper presents a case study of an instrumented low-rise building founded on piles at Circle Line Stage 3 (CCL3) in Singapore. The CCL 3 comprised the construction of five underground train stations connected by 5.7-km long-running twin tunnels. The building's protective strategy and monitoring results of vertical and lateral ground movement, vertical building movement and pile down drag force due to tunnelling works are presented in this paper. A comparison of the predicted values using the three-dimensional finite element method (FEM) program with the measured monitoring results is also discussed. A sensitive analysis with different soil/rock constituted models in the numerical modeling was also carried out. The monitoring results indicated that a significant down drag force was measured in the piles although the ground movement due to tunnelling was relatively small. The analysis results show that the numerical modelling based on a linear elastic soil/rock constituted model may over-estimate the movements and the forces on the pile under the effect of tunnelling works. © 2014 American Society of Civil Engineers.

Yang Q.J.,Hyder Consulting Pty Ltd. | Hossain M.Z.,Hyder Consulting Pty Ltd.
Australian Geomechanics Journal | Year: 2013

The design and construction of the Coronation Drive Westbound Viaduct was a component of the Hale Street Link Alliance project. This paper presents the geotechnical issues and the importance of obtaining sufficient geotechnical information highlighting the key challenges arisen from the concept to detail design developments for the viaduct foundations. The experience gained from the westbound approach embankment in limiting the long term settlement and its interaction with the new sewer rising main is also discussed.

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