Baranova N.S.,CIC Biomagune |
Nileback E.,Chalmers University of Technology |
Haller F.M.,Hyalose LLC |
Briggs D.C.,University of Manchester |
And 4 more authors.
Journal of Biological Chemistry | Year: 2011
Tumor necrosis factor-stimulated gene-6 (TSG-6) is a hyaluronan (HA)-binding protein that plays important roles in inflammation and ovulation. TSG-6-mediated cross-linking of HA has been proposed as a functional mechanism (e.g. for regulating leukocyte adhesion), but direct evidence for cross-linking is lacking, and we know very little about its impact on HA ultrastructure. Here we used films of polymeric and oligomeric HA chains, end-grafted to a solid support, and a combination of surface-sensitive biophysical techniques to quantify the binding of TSG-6 into HA films and to correlate binding to morphological changes. We find that full-length TSG-6 binds with pronounced positive cooperativity and demonstrate that it can cross-link HA at physiologically relevant concentrations. Our data indicate that cooperative binding of full-length TSG-6 arises from HA-induced protein oligomerization and that the TSG-6 oligomers act as cross-linkers. In contrast, the HA-binding domain of TSG-6 (the Link module) alone binds without positive cooperativity and weaker than the full-length protein. Both the Link module and full-length TSG-6 condensed and rigidified HA films, and the degree of condensation scaled with the affinity between the TSG-6 constructs and HA. We propose that condensation is the result of protein-mediated HA crosslinking. Our findings firmly establish that TSG-6 is a potent HA cross-linking agent and might hence have important implications for the mechanistic understanding of the biological function of TSG-6 (e.g. in inflammation). © 2011 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.
Siiskonen H.,University of Eastern Finland |
Rilla K.,University of Eastern Finland |
Karna R.,University of Eastern Finland |
Bart G.,University of Eastern Finland |
And 6 more authors.
Glycobiology | Year: 2013
Hyaluronan (HA) is a large glycosaminoglycan produced by hyaluronan synthases (HAS), enzymes normally active at plasma membrane. While HA is delivered into the extracellular space, intracellular HA is also seen, mostly in vesicular structures, but there are also reports on its presence in the cytosol and specific locations and functions there. We probed the possibility of HA localization and functions in cytosol by microinjecting fluorescent HA binding complex (fHABC), HA fragments and hyaluronidase (HYAL) into cytosol. Microinjection of fHABC did not reveal HA-specific intracellular binding sites. Likewise, specific cytosolic binding sites for HA were not detected, as microinjected fluorescent HA composed of 4-8 monosaccharide units (HA4-HA8) were evenly distributed throughout the cells, including the nucleus, but excluded from membrane-bound organelles. The largest HA tested (∼HA120 or ∼25 kDa) did not enter the nucleus, and HA10-HA28 were progressively excluded from parts of nuclei resembling nucleoli. In contrast, HA oligosaccharides endocytosed from medium remained in vesicular compartments. The activity of HA synthesis was estimated by measuring the HA coat on green fluorescent protein (GFP)-HAS3-transfected MCF-7 cells. Microinjection of HA4 reduced coat size at 4 h, but increased at 24 h after injection, while larger HA-oligosaccharides and HYAL had no influence. As a positive control, microinjection of glucose increased coat size. In summary, no evidence for the presence or function of HA in cytosol was obtained. Also, the synthesis of HA and the active site of HAS were not accessible to competition, binding and degradation by cytosolic effectors, while synthesis responded to increased substrate supply. © 2012 The Author.
Lauer M.E.,Cleveland Clinic |
Glant T.T.,Rush University Medical Center |
Mikecz K.,Rush University Medical Center |
DeAngelis P.L.,The University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center |
And 4 more authors.
Journal of Biological Chemistry | Year: 2013
The covalent transfer of heavy chains (HCs) from inter-α-inhibitor (IαI) to hyaluronan (HA) via the protein product of tumor necrosis factor-stimulated gene-6 (TSG-6) forms the HC-HA complex, a pathological form of HA that promotes the adhesion of leukocytes to HA matrices. The transfer of HCs to high molecular weight (HMW)HAis a reversible event whereby TSG-6 can shuffle HCs from one HA molecule to another. Therefore, HMW HA can serve as both an HC acceptor and an HC donor. In the present study, we show that transfer of HCs to low molecular weight HA oligosaccharides is an irreversible event where subsequent shuffling does not occur, i.e. HA oligosaccharides from 8 to 21 monosaccharide units in length can serve as HC acceptors, but are unable to function as HC donors. We show that the HC-HA complex is present in the synovial fluid of mice subjected to systemic and monoarticular mouse models of rheumatoid arthritis. Furthermore, we demonstrate that HA oligosaccharides can be used, with TSG-6, to irreversibly shuffle HCs from pathological, HMWHC-HA to HA oligosaccharides, thereby restoring HC-HA matrices from the inflamed joint to their normal state, unmodified with HCs. This process was also effective for HC-HA in the synovial fluid of human rheumatoid arthritis patients (in vitro). © 2013 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.