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Kaye J.,University of Oxford | Curren L.,University of Oxford | Anderson N.,University of Washington | Edwards K.,University of Washington | And 8 more authors.
Nature Reviews Genetics | Year: 2012

Advances in computing technology and bioinformatics mean that medical research is increasingly characterized by large international consortia of researchers that are reliant on large data sets and biobanks. These trends raise a number of challenges for obtaining consent, protecting participant privacy concerns and maintaining public trust. Participant-centred initiatives (PCIs) use social media technologies to address these immediate concerns, but they also provide the basis for long-term interactive partnerships. Here, we give an overview of this rapidly moving field by providing an analysis of the different PCI approaches, as well as the benefits and challenges of implementing PCIs. © 2012 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved. Source


Tsado Y.,Lancaster University | Lund D.,HW Communications Ltd. | Gamage K.,Lancaster University
ENERGYCON 2014 - IEEE International Energy Conference | Year: 2014

The concept of Smart grid technology sets greater demands for reliability and resilience on communications infrastructure. Wireless communication is a promising alternative for distribution level, Home Area Network (HAN), smart metering and even the backbone networks that connect smart grid applications to control centres. In this paper, the reliability and resilience of smart grid communication network is analysed using the IEEE 802.11 communication technology in both infrastructure single hop and mesh multiple-hop topologies for smart meters in a Building Area Network (BAN). Performance of end to end delay and Round Trip Time (RTT) of an infrastructure mode smart meter network for Demand Response (DR) function is presented. Hybrid deployment of these network topologies is also suggested to provide resilience and redundancy in the network during network failure or when security of the network is circumvented. This recommendation can also be deployed in other areas of the grid where wireless technologies are used. DR communication from consumer premises is used to show the performance of an infrastructure mode smart metering network. © 2014 IEEE. Source


Tsado Y.,Lancaster University | Lund D.,HW Communications Ltd. | Gamage K.A.A.,Lancaster University
Computer Communications | Year: 2015

Smart grid combines a set of functionalities that can only be achieved through ubiquitous sensing and communication across the electrical grid. The communication infrastructure must be able to cope with an increasing number of traffic types which is as a result of increased control and monitoring, penetration of renewable energy sources and adoption of electric vehicles. The communication infrastructure must serve as a substrate that supports different traffic requirements such as QoS (i.e. latency, bandwidth and delay) across an integrated communication system. This engenders the implementation of middleware systems which considers QoS requirements for different types of traffic in order to allow prompt delivery of these traffic in a smart grid system. A heterogeneous communication applied through the adaptation of the Ubiquitous Sensor Network (USN) layered structure to smart grid has been proposed by the International Telecommunication Union (ITU). This paper explores the ITU's USN architecture and presents the communication technologies which can be deployed within the USN schematic layers for a secure and resilient communication together with a study of their pro's and con's, vulnerabilities and challenges. It also discusses the factors that can affect the selection of communication technologies and suggests possible communications technologies at different USN layers. Furthermore, the paper highlights the USN middleware system as an important mechanism to tackle scalability and interoperability problems as well as shield the communication complexities and heterogeneity of smart grid. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Source


Tsado Y.,Lancaster University | Gamage K.,Lancaster University | Lund D.,HW Communications Ltd.
International Conference on Power Engineering, Energy and Electrical Drives | Year: 2013

A smart grid combines a set of functionalities that can only be achieved through ubiquitous sensing and communication across the electrical grid. A heterogeneous communication applied through the adaptation of the Ubiquitous Sensor Network (USN) layered structure to Smart Grid has been proposed by the International Telecommunication Union (ITU). This paper presents the communications technologies which can be deployed within USN schematic layers for a secure and robust communication, together with a study of their pro's and con's. It also discusses the factors that can affect the selection of communication technologies and suggests possible communications technologies at different USN layers. © 2013 IEEE. Source


Spencer K.,University of Manchester | Sanders C.,University of Manchester | Whitley E.A.,The London School of Economics and Political Science | Lund D.,HW Communications Ltd. | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Medical Internet Research | Year: 2016

Background: Electronic health records are widely acknowledged to provide an important opportunity to anonymize patient-level health care data and collate across populations to support research. Nonetheless, in the wake of public and policy concerns about security and inappropriate use of data, conventional approaches toward data governance may no longer be sufficient to respect and protect individual privacy. One proposed solution to improve transparency and public trust is known as Dynamic Consent, which uses information technology to facilitate a more explicit and accessible opportunity to opt out. In this case, patients can tailor preferences about whom they share their data with and can change their preferences reliably at any time. Furthermore, electronic systems provide opportunities for informing patients about data recipients and the results of research to which their data have contributed. Objective: To explore patient perspectives on the use of anonymized health care data for research purposes. To evaluate patient perceptions of a Dynamic Consent model and electronic system to enable and implement ongoing communication and collaboration between patients and researchers. Methods: A total of 26 qualitative interviews and three focus groups were conducted that included a video presentation explaining the reuse of anonymized electronic patient records for research. Slides and tablet devices were used to introduce the Dynamic Consent system for discussion. A total of 35 patients with chronic rheumatic disease with varying levels of illness and social deprivation were recruited from a rheumatology outpatient clinic; 5 participants were recruited from a patient and public involvement health research network. Results: Patients were supportive of sharing their anonymized electronic patient record for research, but noted a lack of transparency and awareness around the use of data, making it difficult to secure public trust. While there were general concerns about detrimental consequences of data falling into the wrong hands, such as insurance companies, 39 out of 40 (98%) participants generally considered that the altruistic benefits of sharing health care data outweighed the risks. Views were mostly positive about the use of an electronic interface to enable greater control over consent choices, although some patients were happy to share their data without further engagement. Participants were particularly enthusiastic about the system as a means of enabling feedback regarding data recipients and associated research results, noting that this would improve trust and public engagement in research. This underlines the importance of patient and public involvement and engagement throughout the research process, including the reuse of anonymized health care data for research. More than half of patients found the touch screen interface easy to use, although a significant minority, especially those with limited access to technology, expressed some trepidation and felt they may need support to use the system. Conclusions: Patients from a range of socioeconomic backgrounds viewed a digital system for Dynamic Consent positively, in particular, feedback about data recipients and research results. Implementation of a digital Dynamic Consent system would require careful interface design and would need to be located within a robust data infrastructure; it has the potential to improve trust and engagement in electronic medical record research. ©Karen Spencer, Caroline Sanders, Edgar A Whitley, David Lund, Jane Kaye, William Gregory Dixon. Source

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