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Magdalenic J.,Hvar Observatory | Zhukov A.N.,Moscow State University | Vrsnak B.,Hvar Observatory | Zic T.,Hvar Observatory
Astrophysical Journal | Year: 2010

We present a multiwavelength study of five coronal mass ejection/flare events (CME/flare) and associated coronal shock waves manifested as type II radio bursts. The study is focused on the events in which the flare energy release, and not the associated CME, is the most probable source of the shock wave. Therefore, we selected events associated with rather slow CMEs (reported mean velocity below 500 km s-1). To ensure minimal projection effects, only events related to flares situated close to the solar limb were included in the study. We used radio dynamic spectra, positions of radio sources observed by the Nançay Radioheliograph, GOES soft X-ray flux measurements, Large Angle Spectroscopic Coronagraph, and Extreme-ultraviolet Imaging Telescope observations. The kinematics of the shock wave signatures, type II radio bursts, were analyzed and compared with the flare evolution and the CME kinematics. We found that the velocities of the shock waves were significantly higher, up to one order of magnitude, than the contemporaneous CME velocities. On the other hand, shock waves were closely temporally associated with the flare energy release that was very impulsive in all events. This suggests that the impulsive increase of the pressure in the flare was the source of the shock wave. In four events the shock wave was most probably flare-generated, and in one event results were inconclusive due to a very close temporal synchronization of the CME, flare, and shock. © 2010. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved.

Magdalenic J.,Hvar Observatory | Zhukov A.N.,Moscow State University | Vrnak B.,Hvar Observatory | Veronig A.,University of Graz
Astrophysical Journal | Year: 2012

We present a study of the solar coronal shock wave on 2005 November 14 associated with the GOES M3.9 flare that occurred close to the east limb (S06° E60°). The shock signature, a type II radio burst, had an unusually high starting frequency of about 800MHz, indicating that the shock was formed at a rather low height. The position of the radio source, the direction of the shock wave propagation, and the coronal electron density were estimated using Nançay Radioheliograph observations and the dynamic spectrum of the Green Bank Solar Radio Burst Spectrometer. The soft X-ray, Hα, and Reuven Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager observations show that the flare was compact, very impulsive, and of a rather high density and temperature, indicating a strong and impulsive increase of pressure in a small flare loop. The close association of the shock wave initiation with the impulsive energy release suggests that the impulsive increase of the pressure in the flare was the source of the shock wave. This is supported by the fact that, contrary to the majority of events studied previously, no coronal mass ejection was detected in association with the shock wave, although the corresponding flare occurred close to the limb. © 2012 The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved.

Ko Y.-K.,U.S. Navy | Raymond J.C.,Harvard - Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics | Vrsnak B.,Hvar Observatory
Astrophysical Journal | Year: 2010

A post-coronal mass ejection (CME) current sheet (CS) is a common feature developed behind an erupting flux rope in CME models. Observationally, white light observations have recorded many occurrences of a thin ray appearing behind a CME eruption that closely resembles a post-CME CS in its spatial correspondence and morphology. UV and X-ray observations further strengthen this interpretation by the observations of high-temperature emission at locations consistent with model predictions. The next question then becomes whether the properties inside a post-CME CS predicted by a model agree with observed properties. In this work, we assume that the post-CME CS is a consequence of Petschek-like reconnection and that the observed ray-like structure is bounded by a pair of slow mode shocks developed from the reconnection site. We perform time-dependent ionization calculations and model the UV line emission. We find that such a model is consistent with SOHO/UVCS observations of the post-CME CS. The change of Fe xviii emission in one event implies an inflow speed of ∼10 km s-1 and a corresponding reconnection rate of MA ∼ 0.01. We calculate the expected X-ray emission for comparison with X-ray observations by Hinode/XRT, as well as the ionic charge states as would be measured in situ at 1 AU. We find that the predicted count rate for Hinode/XRT agrees with what was observed in a post-CME CS on 2008 April 9, and the predicted ionic charge states are consistent with high ionization states commonly measured in the interplanetary CMEs. The model results depend strongly on the physical parameters in the ambient corona, namely the coronal magnetic field, the electron density, and temperature during the CME event. It is crucial to obtain these ambient coronal parameters and as many facets of the CS properties as possible by observational means so that the post-CME CS models can be scrutinized more effectively. © 2010. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved. Printed in the U.S.A.

Calogovic J.,Hvar Observatory | Albert C.,Eawag - Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology | Arnold F.,Max Planck Institute for Nuclear Physics | Beer J.,Eawag - Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology | And 2 more authors.
Geophysical Research Letters | Year: 2010

Currently a cosmic ray cloud connection (CRC) hypothesis is subject of an intense controversial debate. It postulates that galactic cosmic rays (GCR) intruding the Earth's atmosphere influence cloud cover. If correct it would have important consequences for our understanding of climate driving processes. Here we report on an alternative and stringent test of the CRC-hypothesis by searching for a possible influence of sudden GCR decreases (so-called Forbush decreases) on clouds. We find no response of global cloud cover to Forbush decreases at any altitude and latitude. Copyright © 2010 by the American Geophysical Union.

Veronig A.M.,University of Graz | Gomory P.,Slovak Academy of Sciences | Gomory P.,University of Graz | Kienreich I.W.,University of Graz | And 4 more authors.
Astrophysical Journal Letters | Year: 2011

We present plasma diagnostics of an Extreme-Ultraviolet Imaging Telescope (EIT) wave observed with high cadence in Hinode/Extreme-Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrometer (EIS) sit-and-stare spectroscopy and Solar Dynamics Observatory/Atmospheric Imaging Assembly imagery obtained during the HOP-180 observing campaign on 2011 February 16. At the propagating EIT wave front, we observe downward plasma flows in the EIS Fe XII, Fe XIII, and Fe XVI spectral lines (log T ≈ 6.1-6.4) with line-of-sight (LOS) velocities up to 20kms -1. These redshifts are followed by blueshifts with upward velocities up to -5kms-1 indicating relaxation of the plasma behind the wave front. During the wave evolution, the downward velocity pulse steepens from a few kms-1 up to 20kms-1 and subsequently decays, correlated with the relative changes of the line intensities. The expected increase of the plasma densities at the EIT wave front estimated from the observed intensity increase lies within the noise level of our density diagnostics from EIS Fe XIII 202/203 Å line ratios. No significant LOS plasma motions are observed in the He II line, suggesting that the wave pulse was not strong enough to perturb the underlying chromosphere. This is consistent with the finding that no Hα Moreton wave was associated with the event. The EIT wave propagating along the EIS slit reveals a strong deceleration of a ≈ -540ms-2 and a start velocity of v 0 ≈ 590kms -1. These findings are consistent with the passage of a coronal fast-mode MHD wave, pushing the plasma downward and compressing it at the coronal base. © 2011. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved.

Veronig A.M.,University of Graz | Muhr N.,University of Graz | Kienreich I.W.,University of Graz | Temmer M.,University of Graz | And 2 more authors.
Astrophysical Journal Letters | Year: 2010

We present first observations of a dome-shaped large-scale extreme-ultraviolet coronal wave, recorded by the Extreme Ultraviolet Imager instrument on board STEREO-B on 2010 January 17. The main arguments that the observed structure is the wave dome (and not the coronal mass ejection, CME) are (1) the spherical form and sharpness of the dome's outer edge and the erupting CME loops observed inside the dome; (2) the low-coronal wave signatures above the limb perfectly connecting to the on-disk signatures of the wave; (3) the lateral extent of the expanding dome which is much larger than that of the coronal dimming; and (4) the associated high-frequency type II burst indicating shock formation low in the corona. The velocity of the upward expansion of the wave dome (ν ∼ 650 km s-1) is larger than that of the lateral expansion of the wave (ν ∼ 280 km s-1), indicating that the upward dome expansion is driven all the time, and thus depends on the CME speed, whereas in the lateral direction it is freely propagating after the CME lateral expansion stops. We also examine the evolution of the perturbation characteristics: first the perturbation profile steepens and the amplitude increases. Thereafter, the amplitude decreases with r -2.5 ± 0.3, the width broadens, and the integral below the perturbation remains constant. Our findings are consistent with the spherical expansion and decay of a weakly shocked fast-mode MHD wave. © 2010. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved.

Rotter T.,University of Graz | Veronig A.M.,University of Graz | Temmer M.,University of Graz | Vrsnak B.,Hvar Observatory
Solar Physics | Year: 2012

We analyze the relationship between the coronal hole (CH) characteristics on the Sun (area, position, and intensity levels) and the corresponding solar wind parameters (solar wind speed v, proton temperature T, proton density n, and magnetic field strength B) measured in situ at 1 AU with a 6-h time resolution. We developed a histogram-based intensity thresholding method to obtain fractional CH areas from SOHO/EIT 195 Å images. The algorithm was applied to 6-h cadence EIT 195 Å images for the year 2005, which were characterized by a low solar activity. In calculating well-defined peaks of the solar wind parameters corresponding to the peaks in CH area, we found that the solar wind speed v shows a high correlation with correlation coefficient cc=0. 78, medium correlation for T and B with cc=0. 41 and cc=0. 41. No significant correlation was found with the proton density n. Applying an intensity-weighted CH area did not improve the relations, since the size and the mean intensity of the CH areas are not independent parameters but strongly correlated (cc=- 0. 72). Comparison of the fractional CH areas derived from GOES/SXI and SOHO/EIT and the related solar wind predictions shows no systematic differences (cc=0. 79). © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

Shanmugaraju A.,Arul Anandar College | Vrsnak B.,Hvar Observatory
Solar Physics | Year: 2014

The speed [v(R)] of coronal mass ejections (CMEs) at various distances from the Sun is modeled (as proposed by Vršnak and Gopalswamy in J. Geophys. Res. 107, 2002, doi:10.1029/2001/JA000120) by using the equation of motion adrag=γ(v-w) and its quadratic form adrag=γ(v-w){pipe}v-w{pipe}, where v and w are the speeds of the CME and solar wind, respectively. We assume that the parameter γ can be expressed as γ=αRβ, where R is the heliocentric distance, and α and β are constants. We extend the analysis of Vršnak and Gopalswamy to obtain a more detailed insight into the dependence of the CME Sun-Earth transit time on the CME speed and the ambient solar-wind speed, for different combinations of α and β. In such a parameter-space analysis, the results obtained confirm that the CME transit time depends strongly on the state of the ambient solar wind. Specifically, we found that: i) for a particular set of values of α and β, a difference in the solar-wind speed causes larger transit-time differences at low CME speeds [v0], than at high v0; ii) the difference between transit times of slow and fast CMEs is larger at low solar-wind speed [w0] than at high w0; iii) transit times of fast CMEs are only slightly influenced by the solar-wind speed. The last item is especially important for space-weather forecasting, since it reduces the number of key parameters that determine the arrival time of fast CMEs, which tend to be more geo-effective than the slow ones. Finally, we compared the drag-based model results with the observational data for two CME samples, consisting of non-interacting and interacting CMEs (Manoharan et al. in J. Geophys. Res.109, 2004). The comparison reveals that the model results are in better agreement with the observations for non-interacting events than for the interacting events. It was also found that for slow CMEs (v0<500 km s-1), there is a deviation between the observations and the model if slow-wind speeds (≈ 300 - 400 km s-1) are taken for the model input. On the other hand, the model values and the observed data agree for both the slow and the fast CMEs if higher solar-wind speeds are assumed. It is also found that the quadratic form of the drag equation reproduces the observed transit times of fast CMEs better than the linear drag model. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

Dumbovic M.,Hvar Observatory | Vrsnak B.,Hvar Observatory | Calogovic J.,Hvar Observatory | Karlica M.,Hvar Observatory
Astronomy and Astrophysics | Year: 2011

Aims. We perform a systematic statistical study of the relationship between characteristics of solar wind disturbances, caused by interplanetary coronal mass ejections and corotating interaction regions, and properties of Forbush decreases (FDs). Since the mechanism of FDs is still being researched, this analysis should provide a firm empirical basis for physical interpretations of the FD phenomenon. Methods. The analysis is based on the ground-based neutron monitor data and the solar wind data recorded by the Advanced Composition Explorer, where the disturbances were identified as increases in proton speed, magnetic field, and magnetic field fluctuations. We focus on the relative timing of FDs, as well as on the correlations between various FD and solar wind parameters, paying special attention to the statistical significance of the results. Results. It was found that the onset, the minimum, and the end of FDs are delayed after the onset, the maximum, and the end of the magnetic field enhancement. The t-test shows that at the 95% significance level the average lags have to be longer than 3, 7, and 26 h, respectively. FD magnitude (| FD|) is correlated with the magnetic field strength (B), magnetic field fluctuations (δB), and speed (v), as well as with combined parameters, BtB, Bv, vtB, and BvtB, where tB is the duration of the magnetic field disturbance. In the |FD|(B) dependence, a "branching" effect was observed, i.e., two different trends exist. The analysis of the FD duration and recovery period reveals a correlation with the duration of the magnetic field enhancement. The strongest correlations are obtained for the dependence on combined solar wind parameters of the product of the FD duration and magnitude, implying that combined parameters are in fact true variables themselves, rather than just a product of variables. Conclusions. From the time lags we estimate that "the penetration depth" in the disturbance, at which FD onset becomes recognizable, is on the order of 100 Larmor radii and is comparable to a typical shock-sheath dimension. The results for the FD time profile indicate "shadow effect" of the solar wind disturbance before and after it passes the observer. The importance of reduced parallel diffusion during the passage of the disturbance is discussed, along with the influence of terrestrial effects on the observed "branching effect". © 2011 ESO.

Vasanth V.,Madurai Kamaraj University | Umapathy S.,Madurai Kamaraj University | Vrsnak B.,Hvar Observatory | Anna Lakshmi M.,Madurai Kamaraj University
Solar Physics | Year: 2011

We present a statistical study of the characteristics of type-II radio bursts observed in the metric (m) and deca-hectometer (DH) wavelength range during 1997-2008. The collected events are divided into two groups: Group I contains the events of m-type-II bursts with starting frequency ≥ 100 MHz, and group II contains the events with starting frequency of m-type-II radio bursts < 100 MHz. We have analyzed both samples considering three different aspects: i) statistical properties of type-II bursts, ii) statistical properties of flares and CMEs associated with type-II bursts, and iii) time delays between type-II bursts, flares, and CMEs. We find significant differences in the properties of m-type-II bursts in duration, bandwidth, drift rate, shock speed and delay between m- and DH-type-II bursts. From the timing analysis we found that the majority of m-type-II bursts in both groups occur during the flare impulsive phase. On the other hand, the DH-type-II bursts in both groups occur during the decaying phase of the associated flares. Almost all m-DH-type-II bursts are found to be associated with CMEs. Our results indicate that there are two kinds of shock in which group I (high frequency) m-type-II bursts seem to be ignited by flares whereas group II (low frequency) m-type-II bursts are CME-driven. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

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