Ancrenaz M.,Hutan |
Ambu L.,Wisma Muis |
Ahmad E.,Hutan |
Manokaran K.,Hutan |
And 2 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2010
Background: Today the majority of wild great ape populations are found outside of the network of protected areas in both Africa and Asia, therefore determining if these populations are able to survive in forests that are exploited for timber or other extractive uses and how this is managed, is paramount for their conservation. Methodology/Principal Findings: In 2007, the "Kinabatangan Orang-utan Conservation Project" (KOCP) conducted aerial and ground surveys of orang-utan (Pongo pygmaeus morio) nests in the commercial forest reserves of Ulu Segama Malua (USM) in eastern Sabah, Malaysian Borneo. Compared with previous estimates obtained in 2002, our recent data clearly shows that orang-utan populations can be maintained in forests that have been lightly and sustainably logged. However, forests that are heavily logged or subjected to fast, successive coupes that follow conventional extraction methods, exhibit a decline in orang-utan numbers which will eventually result in localized extinction (the rapid extraction of more than 100 m3 ha-1 of timber led to the crash of one of the surveyed sub-populations). Nest distribution in the forests of USM indicates that orang-utans leave areas undergoing active disturbance and take momentarily refuge in surrounding forests that are free of human activity, even if these forests are located above 500 m asl. Displaced individuals will then recolonize the old-logged areas after a period of time, depending on availability of food sources in the regenerating areas. Conclusion/Significance: These results indicate that diligent planning prior to timber extraction and the implementation of reduced-impact logging practices can potentially be compatible with great ape conservation. © 2010 Ancrenaz et al.
Abram N.K.,Living Landscape Alliance |
Abram N.K.,University of Queensland |
Abram N.K.,University of Kent |
MacMillan D.C.,University of Kent |
And 19 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2016
Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation (REDD+) aims to avoid forest conversion to alternative land-uses through financial incentives. Oil-palm has high opportunity costs, which according to current literature questions the financial competitiveness of REDD+ in tropical lowlands. To understand this more, we undertook regional fine-scale and coarse-scale analyses (through carbon mapping and economic modelling) to assess the financial viability of REDD+ in safeguarding unprotected forest (30,173 ha) in the Lower Kinabatangan floodplain in Malaysian Borneo. Results estimate 4.7 million metric tons of carbon (MgC) in unprotected forest, with 64% allocated for oil-palm cultivations. Through fine-scale mapping and carbon accounting, we demonstrated that REDD+ can outcompete oil-palm in regions with low suitability, with low carbon prices and low carbon stock. In areas with medium oil-palm suitability, REDD+ could outcompete oil palm in areas with: very high carbon and lower carbon price; medium carbon price and average carbon stock; or, low carbon stock and high carbon price. Areas with high oil palm suitability, REDD + could only outcompete with higher carbon price and higher carbon stock. In the coarse-scale model, oil-palm outcompeted REDD+ in all cases. For the fine-scale models at the landscape level, low carbon offset prices (US $3 MgCO2e) would enable REDD+ to outcompete oil-palm in 55% of the unprotected forests requiring US $27 million to secure these areas for 25 years. Higher carbon offset price (US $30 MgCO2e) would increase the competitiveness of REDD+ within the landscape but would still only capture between 69%-74% of the unprotected forest, requiring US $380-416 million in carbon financing. REDD+ has been identified as a strategy to mitigate climate change by many countries (including Malaysia). Although REDD+ in certain scenarios cannot outcompete oil palm, this research contributes to the global REDD+ debate by: highlighting REDD+ competitiveness in tropical floodplain landscapes; and, providing a robust approach for identifying and targeting limited REDD+ funds. © 2016 Abram et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Gregory S.D.,University of Adelaide |
Gregory S.D.,Salmon and Trout Research Center |
Ancrenaz M.,Hutan |
Brook B.W.,University of Adelaide |
And 5 more authors.
Diversity and Distributions | Year: 2014
Aim: Habitat fragmentation threatens species' persistence by increasing subpopulation isolation and vulnerability to stochastic events, and its impacts are expected to worsen under climate change. By reconnecting isolated fragments, habitat corridors should dampen the synergistic impacts of habitat and climate change on population viability. Choosing which fragments to reconnect is typically informed by past and current environmental conditions. However, habitat and climate are dynamic and change over time. Habitat suitability projections could inform fragment selection using current and future conditions, ensuring that corridors connect persistent fragments. We compare the efficacy of using current-day and future forecasts of breeding habitat to inform corridor placement under land cover and climate-change mitigation and no mitigation scenarios by evaluating their influence on subpopulation abundance, and connectivity and long-term metapopulation abundance. Our case study is the threatened orangutan metapopulation in Sabah. Location: Sabah, Malaysian Borneo. Methods: Using coupled niche-population models that capture a metapopulation distribution and its major processes, we forecast the effect of current-day and future-informed habitat corridor implementations under two scenarios where (1) land cover and climate change continue unabated (no mitigation) and (2) local and international cooperation mitigates their synergistic impact (mitigation). Results: We show that Future-informed corridor placement maximizes long-term metapopulation abundance when human-driven land cover and climate change alter the spatio-temporal composition of suitable habitat. By contrast, there is no apparent benefit in using future forecasts of breeding habitat to inform corridor placement if conditions remain comparatively stable. For the Sabah orangutan under unabated land cover and climate change, habitat corridors should connect current-day populated eastern habitat fragments with vacant fragments in the state's west. Main conclusions: The efficacy of habitat corridors can be improved by using habitat-suitability model projections to inform corridor placement in rapidly changing environments, even for long-lived, low-fecundity, philopatric species such as orangutan. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Estes J.G.,Antioch University New England |
Estes J.G.,University of Massachusetts Amherst |
Othman N.,University of Cardiff |
Othman N.,Danau Girang Field Center |
And 6 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2012
The approximately 300 (298, 95% CI: 152-581) elephants in the Lower Kinabatangan Managed Elephant Range in Sabah, Malaysian Borneo are a priority sub-population for Borneo's total elephant population (2,040, 95% CI: 1,184-3,652). Habitat loss and human-elephant conflict are recognized as the major threats to Bornean elephant survival. In the Kinabatangan region, human settlements and agricultural development for oil palm drive an intense fragmentation process. Electric fences guard against elephant crop raiding but also remove access to suitable habitat patches. We conducted expert opinion-based least-cost analyses, to model the quantity and configuration of available suitable elephant habitat in the Lower Kinabatangan, and called this the Elephant Habitat Linkage. At 184 km2, our estimate of available habitat is 54% smaller than the estimate used in the State's Elephant Action Plan for the Lower Kinabatangan Managed Elephant Range (400 km2). During high flood levels, available habitat is reduced to only 61 km2. As a consequence, short-term elephant densities are likely to surge during floods to 4.83 km-2 (95% CI: 2.46-9.41), among the highest estimated for forest-dwelling elephants in Asia or Africa. During severe floods, the configuration of remaining elephant habitat and the surge in elephant density may put two villages at elevated risk of human-elephant conflict. Lower Kinabatangan elephants are vulnerable to the natural disturbance regime of the river due to their limited dispersal options. Twenty bottlenecks less than one km wide throughout the Elephant Habitat Linkage, have the potential to further reduce access to suitable habitat. Rebuilding landscape connectivity to isolated habitat patches and to the North Kinabatangan Managed Elephant Range (less than 35 km inland) are conservation priorities that would increase the quantity of available habitat, and may work as a mechanism to allow population release, lower elephant density, reduce human-elephant conflict, and enable genetic mixing. © 2012 Estes et al.
PubMed | Hutan
Type: Journal Article | Journal: PloS one | Year: 2010
Today the majority of wild great ape populations are found outside of the network of protected areas in both Africa and Asia, therefore determining if these populations are able to survive in forests that are exploited for timber or other extractive uses and how this is managed, is paramount for their conservation.In 2007, the Kinabatangan Orang-utan Conservation Project (KOCP) conducted aerial and ground surveys of orang-utan (Pongo pygmaeus morio) nests in the commercial forest reserves of Ulu Segama Malua (USM) in eastern Sabah, Malaysian Borneo. Compared with previous estimates obtained in 2002, our recent data clearly shows that orang-utan populations can be maintained in forests that have been lightly and sustainably logged. However, forests that are heavily logged or subjected to fast, successive coupes that follow conventional extraction methods, exhibit a decline in orang-utan numbers which will eventually result in localized extinction (the rapid extraction of more than 100 m(3) ha(-1) of timber led to the crash of one of the surveyed sub-populations). Nest distribution in the forests of USM indicates that orang-utans leave areas undergoing active disturbance and take momentarily refuge in surrounding forests that are free of human activity, even if these forests are located above 500 m asl. Displaced individuals will then recolonize the old-logged areas after a period of time, depending on availability of food sources in the regenerating areas.These results indicate that diligent planning prior to timber extraction and the implementation of reduced-impact logging practices can potentially be compatible with great ape conservation.
News Article | February 8, 2017
The Cincinnati Zoo & Botanical Garden has three new welcome additions - Malayan tiger cubs. The three tigers were born on Friday and were unfortunately separated from their mum Cinta as the tigress' maternal instincts did not kick in. The maternal instincts not kicking in posed to be a threat for the three Malayan cubs and vets worried that they would be unable to survive as they could not stay warms without Cinta's body heat. Therefore, fearing a drop in the tigers' body temperature, the zoo took the call to take away the three cubs from the den. The tigress' maternal instincts not kicking in is not uncommon say the zoo staff who are caring for the three cubs in a nursery. "It's not uncommon for first-time tiger moms not to know what to do. They can be aggressive and even harm or kill the cubs. Nursery staff is keeping them warm and feeding them every three hours," revealed Mike Dulaney, curator of mammals and vice coordinator of the Malayan Tiger SSP. The three cubs will looked after in the zoo's nursery till they do not require care. Then the trio will be shifted to the Cat Canyon. The zoo authorities estimate that this process may happen by early spring. However, the three cubs will not be introduced again to their mum Cinta as she will not be able to recognize the tigers as being her own. This is because of the lengthy separation between the mother and the cubs. The cubs' mother Cinta is a three-year-old tigress and holds the distinction of being the second-most valuable female in the Cincinnati Zoo & Botanical Garden, owing to her genes. The father of the cubs is 15-year-old Jalil, who is the third-most genetically valuable male of the species. In 2009, Jalil and the tigress Hutan gave birth to four male, which are now in other zoos. The combination of Jalil and Cinta gives the three cubs a terrific lineage. The cubs will contribute to a genetic diversity that is much required in the context of when they begin to breed. The breeding recommendations are usually given by the Malayan tiger Species Survival Plan (SSP). The SSP manages the health of the species in the 28 authorized zoos that are enlisted to care for the Malayan tiger. The Malayan tiger is one of the most endangered species in the world with less than 500 estimated to remain. The destruction of their habitat and environment are to be blamed for the species' dwindling numbers. © 2017 Tech Times, All rights reserved. Do not reproduce without permission.
News Article | November 17, 2015
The park sprawling on an area of almost one hectare, is the focal point for research, learning, reference as well as recreation. Complete with a nursery, it draws visitors who want to get the plants or herbs for the purpose of traditional treatment. Formerly a rubber plantation, it was managed by Unit Ladang Universiti in the early 1980s before it was handed over to Bioscience Institute (IBS) in 1996 for the purpose of research activity. IBS Agriculture Officer, Rishzuan Talib said the park is divided into 11 zones based on its functions, usage and species of plants. The zones are Ginger, Medicinal Plants, Ferns, Traditional Vegetables, Aquatic Plants, Wild Orchids, Pitcher Plants, Aroid, Spices, Aromatic Plants and Forest Fruits. The focus, however, is mainly on herbal plants. At the Medicinal Plants zone, there are about 200 species of native and exotic plants that could be found in the country such as Mata Pelanduk (Ardisiacrenata) and Lemba (Molineriacapitulata). Rishzuan said iconic plants at the park were Keladi Murai or Belimbing Tanah (Taccaintergrifolia), known for their medicinal value said to be able to treat diabetes and high blood pressure. Other medicinal plants available at the park include Tongkat Ali (Eurycomalongifolia), Kacip Fatimah (Labisiapumila), Tongkat Ali Hitam (Polyathiabullata King), Tunjuk Langit (Helminthostachyszeylanica), Pecah Kaca or PecahBeling (Strobilanthescrispa), Putat (Baringtoniaracemosa ), Mahkota Dewa (Phaleriamacrocarpa), Senduduk Putih (Melastomadecemfidum), Belalai Gajah (Clinacanthus Nutans) and HempeduBumi (Andrographispaniculata). He said most of the species available at Medicinal Plants Zone were those obtained from forests in Peninsula Malaysia. He also said the species possessed medicinal benefits as an alternative to modern medicines. There were those that were rare and very difficult to find. At Ginger zone, there are about 100 species which make up half of the total number of species that could be found in Malaysia, including Tepus (Zingiberspectabile) and Kantan Hutan (Etlingeraterengganuensis). There are about 50 species of traditional vegetables at the Traditional Vegetables zone, such as Daun Gajus (Anacardiumoccidantale) and Daud Salam (Syzgiumpolyanthum), obtained from jungles and vegetable farms. Over at the Aromatic Plants Zone, there are about 50 native and exotic species. The fragrance from these plants is spread through various important components such as the flowers, leaves, barks, fruits, saps and roots like those of Cempaka (Micheliachampaca) and Hidung Babi (Rothmaniamacrophylla). Rishzuan added that the Conservatory Park was part of Edu-Park UPM's programmes where three modules were introduced for visitors – Explore The Park, Herbal Spa and Take Me Home which can be obtained at a minimal rate. Under Explore The Park module, visitors will be taken through a special passage around the park by guides who will be briefing them about the plants available. Each tree is tagged with its scientific name, local name as well as a description of its usage. The trees are marked with an ID and the information is kept in a database which could be obtained by surfing its website. There is a free wi-fi here. Visitors have the choice to follow the Herbal Spa module where a demonstration on the use of herbal plants for bathing is conducted. It is not only invigorating but helps to stimulate blood circulation and is ideal for those who have just given birth. He added that seven types of leaves that could be used for bathing including limau kasturi, pokok lemuni, serai wangi, lengkuas and daun kantan were normally cut into pieces first before they were boiled in an earthen pot. The leaves will give such a refreshing aroma. The product are sold in the form of sachet at RM30 for each box which contain five sachets. Each sachet can be used twice. Meanwhile, under the Take Me Home module, children will be entertained to a floral drawing activity while the adults are given a demonstration on planting and growing of herbs. Explore further: Herbal medicine through an evolutionary lens
News Article | December 21, 2016
The plight of the orangutan and the south-east Asian forests it inhabits has kept the palm oil industry on the defensive for decades. As the industry now expands at breakneck pace into Africa, conservationists fear slaughtered gorillas, chimpanzees and bonobos could become its new symbol unless significant changes are made. This is the conclusion of a recent report produced by the Great Apes Survival Partnership at the United Nations Environment Programme. According to the report’s authors, conservationists and industry must work together to protect Africa’s great apes and avoid the destruction caused by the palm oil industry in Malaysia and Indonesia. “Lessons learned from south-east Asia showed that fighting oil palm development doesn’t really work,” says Marc Ancrenaz, an orangutan expert with the NGO Hutan who co-authored the Palm Oil Paradox report. “Oil palm development is going to stay and to expand. Rather than ignoring the consequences [...], conservationists should better engage with this industry to try to influence their practices on the ground.” The stakes are high. The bonobo, for example, is only found in one country, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, and 99% of its range (the area where biologists know or expect a species to live) is suitable for oil palm production. The report’s authors, including a number of the world’s top primatologists, recommend that palm oil companies must start by implementing “no-go zones” to ensure forests housing so-called “priority populations” of gorillas, chimps or bonobos remain untouched. Serge Wich, a professor at Liverpool John Moores University and report co-author, says prioritising populations may mean losing some small, fragmented populations that, he says, have almost no chance of long term survival, but it would ensure the survival of the bulk of Africa’s great apes, all of which are either listed as critically endangered or endangered. Employing strict no-go zones for apes would prevent many palm companies from fully developing their concessions. Currently, limited resources mean governments often grant large concessions with little information on wildlife populations, forest structure or local communities. Companies therefore often have to enforce their own sustainability standards when it comes to clearing land. To date, however, ape populations are rarely taken into account either by governments or companies. By working with conservationists, companies can help fund on-the-ground surveys to establish no-go zones for apes and other wildlife. The establishment of new oil palm plantations doesn’t just lead to habitat loss for apes. An increasingly fragmented and accessible forest means a potential increase in poaching for bushmeat or revenge killing of apes that feed on nearby crops after their forest food sources are destroyed. To deal with this, the report’s authors recommend companies incorporate best management practices, such as gaining certification through the Roundtable on Sustainable Palm Oil, installing a no-kill policy for apes and other wildlife, and creating wildlife corridors for animals to move through and around plantations. In addition, the scientists say all palm oil companies must employ full-time environmental management teams and invest in monitoring of great apes and other wildlife near the concession to make sure populations are thriving. Yet many current projects on the continent do not instil confidence that the industry has learned any lessons from south-east Asia. A hugely controversial plantation in Cameroon, formerly run by Herakles Farms but now by SG Sustainable Oils Cameroon, has been criticised for the location of its concession in chimpanzee territory. Meanwhile a massive oil palm plantation in the Republic of the Congo operated by Atama has been faulted for logging gorilla habitat. “Certainly many of the same mistakes are being made,” says Wich. But he points to Olam, an agribusiness with palm oil operations in Gabon, as an example of a firm that “seems to be moving in the right direction”. Olam has set aside more than 50% of its flagship concession as high conservation value forest, including protecting both chimpanzee and gorilla populations on site. In conducting great ape surveys, Olam found not only chimpanzees and gorillas in the remote parts of its concession but also ample evidence of a thriving bushmeat trade. It then worked with partners such as Gabon’s national park system and WWF. “I think they set a good example and now it is time for others to follow,” says Wich, though he adds that new revelations prove even Olam has a lot of work to do. Olam has recently been criticised (pdf) for allegedly clearing 20,000 hectares of forests since 2012. Olam does not dispute it has cut down forests, even those used by great apes. Olam does not have a “no deforestation” policy. It argues this is because of the unique situation of working in Gabon; the central African country is one of the most heavily forested nations on the planet and has high unemployment and little agriculture investment, meaning much of the food is imported. “Gabon has a right and an essential need to develop its agriculture sector to diversify its economy, improve food security to feed its people and create new livelihood opportunities, while also protecting its natural forests,” said Sunny Verghese, CEO of Olam, in a statement responding to the report. The example of Olam – lauded on one hand, criticised on the other – proves the complexity of palm oil in Africa and its perils. But if great apes are to survive the palm oil boom, companies and conservationists must find common ground. Sign up to be a Guardian Sustainable Business member and get more stories like this direct to your inbox every week. You can also follow us on Twitter.