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Lee J.S.,Kangwon National University | Lee J.S.,National Institute of Biological Resources | Kim Y.-H.,Kangwon National University | Kim D.-B.,Kangwon National University | And 5 more authors.
Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology | Year: 2015

Codonopsis lanceolata is a perennial plant that has been used as a food and in traditional medicine for the treatment of cough, bronchitis, and inflammation in East Asia including Korea, Japan, and China. However, information regarding its toxicity is limited. Therefore, we performed a safety evaluation of aqueous C. lanceolata root extract (CLE) in Sprague-Dawley rats. Assessment of acute toxicity revealed that CLE did not influence mortality, clinical appearance, body weight gain, or necropsy findings at a dose of 5000mg/kg body weight. In the subchronic oral toxicity, data revealed that several significant alteration in food consumption, water consumption, protein excretion, WBCs levels, TGs, BUN levels, and the absolute and relative weights in the liver, spleen and lungs. However, these changes were transient and were not considered treatment related because they showed no apparent dose dependent. These results suggest that CLE (1250, 2500, and 5000mg/kgbody weight/day) administered orally does not cause acute or subchronic toxicity to male or female rats. The 50% lethal dose (LD50) of CLE was determined to be greater than 5000mg/kg. © 2015.


Kim D.B.,Kangwon National University | Shin G.H.,Kangwon National University | Cho J.H.,Hurum Central Research Institute | Baik S.O.,Hurum Central Research Institute | Lee O.-H.,Kangwon National University
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition | Year: 2013

This study investigated the physicochemical properties (pH, Brix), total phenol content, antioxidant activities (DPPH radical scavenging activity and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC)), and nitrite scavenging activity of beverage concentrates and purees. All concentrates and purees were produced from natural materials and have been used as the main ingredients in health-related beverages. Our results show that the pH values and Brix of all concentrates and purees ranged from 2.81 to 5.12 and 1.70 to 70.30 Brix, respectively. The highest total phenol content (182.71 mg GAE/mL), DPPH radical scavenging activity (69.88%) and nitrite scavenging activity (28.19%) were obtained from acai berry puree. The concentrate from wild blueberry had the highest ORAC value (27,514 μM TE/mL). Among the correlation coefficient data, the total phenol content exhibited a high correlation coefficient (r=0.9099) and DPPH radical scavenging activity. These results suggest that concentrates and purees from natural materials contribute to antioxidant activities in healthy beverages. © 2013 by The Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition. All rights reserved.


Lee Y.-J.,Kangwon National University | Kim D.-B.,Kangwon National University | Lee J.S.,Kangwon National University | Cho J.-H.,Hurum Central Research Institute | And 4 more authors.
Molecules | Year: 2013

Wild herbs, which are edible plants that grow in mountainous areas, have diverse biological effects such as anti-obesity and anti-cancer activities. The aim of this study was to evaluate the total phenolic and flavonoid contents as well as the antioxidant activity of methanol extracts of Aster scaber, Ligularia fischeri, Kalopanax pictus, Codonopsis lanceolata, and Cirsium setidens and to assess their effects on lipid accumulation and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production during adipogenesis of 3T3-L1 cells. The results revealed that among the five studied wild herb extracts, Ligularia fischeri showed the highest total phenolic contents (215.8 ± 14.2 mg GAE/g) and Aster scaber showed the highest total flavonoid content (103.9 ± 3.4 mg RE/g). Furthermore, Aster scaber and Ligularia fischeri extracts showed higher antioxidant activity than the other wild herbs. Regarding anti-adipogenic activity, the Cirsium setidens extract significantly inhibited lipid accumulation (~80%) and ROS production (~50%) during adipogenesis of 3T3-L1 cells compared with control cells. These results suggest that wild herbs could be used for the development of functional foods as well as health promoting and pharmaceutical agents. © 1996-2013 MDPI AG.


Noh D.-H.,The Korea Intellectual Property Office | Lee O.-H.,Kangwon National University | Cho J.H.,Hurum Central Research Institute | Hong H.-D.,Korea Food Research Institute | Kim K.-J.,University of Cincinnati
Food Science and Biotechnology | Year: 2013

Wine tannins are essential to the astringency and color stabilization of red wine through the formation of tannin conjugates. It is important to determine the concentration of tannins during wine aging and fermentation. The aim of this study was to establish a new method that allows for real-time analysis of tannin content in wine and eliminates inconvenient processes, such as calibrations and/or enzyme reactions. The Folin-Ciocalteau spectrophotometry (FCS) was used a positive control and compared it with new microelectrode biosensor cyclic voltammetry (MBCV) method. The new approach was established that not only allows for real-time tannin detection but is also economical and does not require the use of a specific enzyme. The results are reproducible and provide a precise measurement of tannin content. © 2013 The Korean Society of Food Science and Technology and Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.


Lee J.S.,Kangwon National University | Kim K.-J.,University of Maryland University College | Kim Y.-H.,Kangwon National University | Kim D.-B.,Kangwon National University | And 5 more authors.
Nutrients | Year: 2014

Codonopsis lanceolata extract (CLE) has been used in traditional medicine in the Asian-Pacific region for the treatment of bronchitis, cough, and inflammation. However, it is still unclear whether obesity in mice can be altered by diet supplementation with CLE. To investigate whether CLE could have preventative effects on high fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity, male C57BL/6 mice were placed on either a normal chow diet, 60% HFD, or a HFD supplemented with CLE (60, 180, and 360 mg/kg/day) for 12 weeks. CLE decreased body weight and subcutaneous and visceral fat weights in HFD-induced obese mice. CLE group mice showed lower fat accumulation and a smaller adipocyte area in the adipose tissue compared with the HFD group mice. CLE group mice exhibited lower serum levels of triglycerides, total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein (LDL), glucose, and insulin compared with the HFD group mice. In addition, CLE decreased liver weight and lowered the increase in aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine transaminase (ALT) levels in HFD-induced obese mice. These results indicate that CLE can inhibit the development of diet-induced obesity and hyperlipidemia in C57BL/6 mice. ©2014 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.


Kim D.-B.,Kangwon National University | Shin G.H.,Kangwon National University | Lee J.S.,Kangwon National University | Lee O.-H.,Kangwon National University | And 2 more authors.
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology | Year: 2014

This study was designed to investigate the antioxidant activities (ORAC value, DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging activity, FRAP activity, and reducing power) and nitrite scavenging activities of Acanthopanax senticosus extracts fermented with the mycelia of three different mushroom species: Ganoderma lucidum, Phellinus linteus, and Hericium erinaceus. The highest total phenol content (42.09 GAE mg/g) and ORAC value (74,912 μM TE/g) were observed in a hot water extract of A. senticosus fermented with G. lucidum. The highest DPPH radical and nitrite scavenging activities were observed in a 70% ethanol extract of A. senticosus fermented with G. lucidum. In addition, ABTS radical scavenging activity (8-88%), FRAP activity (0.1-0.2), and reducing power (0.3-0.7) were increased by ethanol addition in all samples in a dose-dependent manner. These results provide a basic understanding of the antioxidant and nitrite-scavenging activities of A. senticosus extracts fermented with different mushroom mycelia. copyright © 2014 The Korean Society of Food Science and Technology.


Kim D.-B.,Kangwon National University | Shin G.-H.,Kangwon National University | Kim J.-M.,Kangwon National University | Kim Y.-H.,Kangwon National University | And 7 more authors.
Food Chemistry | Year: 2016

The production of excessive reactive oxygen species by exposure to oxidative stress and solar radiation are primary factors in skin damage. We examined the effects of a citrus-based juice mixture and its bioactive compounds on antioxidant and anti-ageing activities in human dermal fibroblasts and hairless mice via the regulation of antioxidant enzymes and the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway. The citrus-based juice mixture reduced H2O2-induced cell damage and intracellular reactive oxygen species production in human dermal fibroblasts. Citrus-based juice mixture pretreatment suppressed the activation of the H2O2-mediated mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway by activating the expression of activator protein 1 and matrix metalloproteinases. Moreover, it increased the expression levels of antioxidant enzymes such as glutathione reductase, catalase and manganese superoxide dismutase. In addition, oral administration of the citrus-based juice mixture decreased skin thickness and wrinkle formation and increased collagen content on an ultraviolet light B-exposed hairless mouse. These results indicate that the citrus-based juice mixture is a potentially healthy beverage for the prevention of oxidative stress-induced premature skin ageing. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


PubMed | Hurum Central Research Institute, Korea University and Kangwon National University
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Regulatory toxicology and pharmacology : RTP | Year: 2015

Codonopsis lanceolata is a perennial plant that has been used as a food and in traditional medicine for the treatment of cough, bronchitis, and inflammation in East Asia including Korea, Japan, and China. However, information regarding its toxicity is limited. Therefore, we performed a safety evaluation of aqueous C. lanceolata root extract (CLE) in Sprague-Dawley rats. Assessment of acute toxicity revealed that CLE did not influence mortality, clinical appearance, body weight gain, or necropsy findings at a dose of 5000 mg/kg body weight. In the subchronic oral toxicity, data revealed that several significant alteration in food consumption, water consumption, protein excretion, WBCs levels, TGs, BUN levels, and the absolute and relative weights in the liver, spleen and lungs. However, these changes were transient and were not considered treatment related because they showed no apparent dose dependent. These results suggest that CLE (1250, 2500, and 5000 mg/kg body weight/day) administered orally does not cause acute or subchronic toxicity to male or female rats. The 50% lethal dose (LD50) of CLE was determined to be greater than 5000 mg/kg.


PubMed | Hurum Central Research Institute
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Laboratory animal research | Year: 2011

In this study, aloe fermentation products were derived from mycelia from 3 mushrooms: Ganoderma lucidum (AG), Hericium erinaceum (AH), and Phellinus linteus (AP). Levels of aloin A and B increased with fermentation time. The highest levels were measured on the fifth day of fermentation. -Glucan levels decreased with fermentation time. The safety of aloe fermentation products were examined in male and female Sprague-Dawley rats. Rats were orally administered the three aloe fermentation products at dose levels of 1, 2 or 5 g/kg for single-dose toxicity test and 0.5, 1, or 2 g/kg for repeated-dose toxicity test. There were no significant differences in body weight gain between vehicle control and AG-, AH- or AP-treated rats. Also, significant changes in daily feed intake and water consumption were not observed. In hematological analysis, none of the parameters were affected by aloe fermentation products with mushroom mycelia. This suggests that there are no negative effects on homeostasis and immunity. In blood biochemistry analysis, none of the markers were affected by feeding rats with AG, AH or AP. Similarly, there were no significant effects on markers for liver, kidney, skeletal and heart muscle functions. No remarkable lesions were observed in these organs at histopathology. Since there were no adverse effects of AG, AH and AP in single- or repeated-dose toxicity tests, even at higher doses than normal, we conclude that the aloe fermentation products with mushroom mycelia possess long-term safety and could be candidates as multifunctional nutrients for the improvement of intestinal function and immunity.


PubMed | Hurum Central Research Institute, University of Maryland University College, Korea University and Kangwon National University
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Nutrients | Year: 2014

Codonopsis lanceolata extract (CLE) has been used in traditional medicine in the Asian-Pacific region for the treatment of bronchitis, cough, and inflammation. However, it is still unclear whether obesity in mice can be altered by diet supplementation with CLE. To investigate whether CLE could have preventative effects on high fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity, male C57BL/6 mice were placed on either a normal chow diet, 60% HFD, or a HFD supplemented with CLE (60, 180, and 360 mg/kg/day) for 12 weeks. CLE decreased body weight and subcutaneous and visceral fat weights in HFD-induced obese mice. CLE group mice showed lower fat accumulation and a smaller adipocyte area in the adipose tissue compared with the HFD group mice. CLE group mice exhibited lower serum levels of triglycerides, total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein (LDL), glucose, and insulin compared with the HFD group mice. In addition, CLE decreased liver weight and lowered the increase in aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine transaminase (ALT) levels in HFD-induced obese mice. These results indicate that CLE can inhibit the development of diet-induced obesity and hyperlipidemia in C57BL/6 mice.

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