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Ming J.,Nanjing University | Zhang J.A.,Hurricane Research Division | Zhang J.A.,University of Miami
Advances in Atmospheric Sciences | Year: 2016

The effects of surface flux parameterizations on tropical cyclone (TC) intensity and structure are investigated using the Advanced Research Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF-ARW) modeling system with high-resolution simulations of Typhoon Morakot (2009). Numerical experiments are designed to simulate Typhoon Morakot (2009) with different formulations of surface exchange coefficients for enthalpy (CK) and momentum (CD) transfers, including those from recent observational studies based on in situ aircraft data collected in Atlantic hurricanes. The results show that the simulated intensity and structure are sensitive to CK and CD, but the simulated track is not. Consistent with previous studies, the simulated storm intensity is found to be more sensitive to the ratio of CK/CD than to CK or CD alone. The pressure–wind relationship is also found to be influenced by the exchange coefficients, consistent with recent numerical studies. This paper emphasizes the importance of CD and CK on TC structure simulations. The results suggest that CD and CK have a large impact on surface wind and flux distributions, boundary layer heights, the warm core, and precipitation. Compared to available observations, the experiment with observed CD and CK generally simulated better intensity and structure than the other experiments, especially over the ocean. The reasons for the structural differences among the experiments with different CD and CK setups are discussed in the context of TC dynamics and thermodynamics. © 2016, Chinese National Committee for International Association of Meteorology and Atmospheric Sciences, Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Science Press and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

Quirino T.S.,Hurricane Research Division | Delgado J.,University of Miami | Zhang X.,University of Miami
Proceedings - 16th IEEE International Conference on High Performance Computing and Communications, HPCC 2014, 11th IEEE International Conference on Embedded Software and Systems, ICESS 2014 and 6th International Symposium on Cyberspace Safety and Security, CSS 2014 | Year: 2014

The Hurricane Weather Research and Forecasting (HWRF) model is one of the premier models in NOAA's operational suite of severe weather forecasting systems. An axiom in numerical weather prediction suggests that modeling the environment at high resolution optimizes forecast accuracy. However, due to operational time constraints, only the region immediately surrounding a single hurricane can be modeled in high resolution. Currently, this is achieved by embedding a relatively small high resolution, storm-following pair of grids within a larger and coarser grid. In a previous work, we extended HWRF to support multiple such independent storm-following pair of grids. The result was improved forecast accuracy by virtue of modeling storm-to-storm interactions in high resolution. However, some shortcomings in the underlying WRF framework cause these independent pairs of grids to be simulated sequentially. This limits the model's scalability and makes it impossible to harness this novel capability within the operational time constraints. In this paper, we address this issue by modifying the underlying WRF framework to simulate these independent pairs of storm-following grids in parallel. This is the first approach to be successfully implemented in the history of the WRF framework. © 2014 IEEE.

Zhu P.,Florida International University | Zhang J.A.,Hurricane Research Division | Masters F.J.,University of Florida
Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences | Year: 2010

Using wavelet transform (WT), this study analyzes the surface wind data collected by the portable wind towers during the landfalls of six hurricanes and one tropical storm in the 2002-04 seasons. The WT, which decomposes a time series onto the scale-time domain, provides a means to investigate the role of turbulent eddies in the vertical transport in the unsteady, inhomogeneous hurricane surface layer. The normalized WT power spectra (NWPS) show that the hurricane boundary layer roll vortices tend to suppress the eddy circulations immediately adjacent to rolls, but they do not appear to have a substantial effect on eddies smaller than 100 m. For low-wind conditions with surface wind speeds less than 10 m s-1, the contributions of small eddies (< 236 m) to the surface wind stress and turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) decrease with the increase of wind speed. The opposite variation trend is found for eddies greater than 236 m. However, for wind speeds greater than 10 m s-1, contributions of both small and large eddies tend to level off as wind speeds keep increasing. It is also found that the scale of the peak NWPS of the surface wind stress is nearly constant with a mean value of approximately 86 m, whereas the scale of the peak NWPS of TKE generally increases with the increase of wind speed, suggesting the different roles of eddies in generating fluxes and TKE. This study illustrates the unique characteristics of the surface layer turbulent structures during hurricane landfalls. It is hoped that the findings of this study could enlighten the development and improvement of turbulent mixing schemes so that the vertical transport processes in the hurricane surface layer can be appropriately parameterized in forecasting models. © 2010 American Meteorological Society.

Montgomery M.T.,Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey | Montgomery M.T.,Hurricane Research Division | Davis C.,U.S. National Center for Atmospheric Research | Dunkerton T.,NorthWest Research Associates, Inc. | And 14 more authors.
Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society | Year: 2012

The principal hypotheses of a new model of tropical cyclogenesis, known as the marsupial paradigm, were tested in the context of Atlantic tropical disturbances during the National Science Foundation (NSF)-sponsored Pre-Depression Investigation of Cloud Systems in the Tropics (PREDICT) experiment in 2010. PREDICT was part of a tri-agency collaboration, along with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Genesis and Rapid Intensification Processes (NASA GRIP) experiment and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's Intensity Forecasting Experiment (NOAA IFEX), intended to examine both developing and nondeveloping tropical disturbances. During PREDICT, a total of 26 missions were flown with the NSF/NCAR Gulfstream V (GV) aircraft sampling eight tropical disturbances. Among these were four cases (Fiona, ex-Gaston, Karl, and Matthew) for which three or more missions were conducted, many on consecutive days. Because of the scientific focus on the Lagrangian nature of the tropical cyclogenesis process, a wave-relative frame of reference was adopted throughout the experiment in which various model-and satellite-based products were examined to guide aircraft planning and real-time operations. Here, the scientific products and examples of data collected are highlighted for several of the disturbances. The suite of cases observed represents arguably the most comprehensive, self-consistent dataset ever collected on the environment and mesoscale structure of developing and nondeveloping predepression disturbances. © 2012 American Meteorological Society.

Ming J.,Nanjing University | Zhang J.A.,Hurricane Research Division | Zhang J.A.,University of Miami | Rogers R.F.,Hurricane Research Division
Journal of Geophysical Research D: Atmospheres | Year: 2015

The data from 438 Global Positioning System dropsondes in six typhoons are analyzed to investigate the mean atmospheric boundary layer structure in a composite framework. Following a recent study on boundary layer height in Atlantic hurricanes, we aim to quantify characteristics of boundary layer height scales in Western Pacific typhoons including the inflow layer depth (hinflow), height of the maximum tangential wind speed (hvtmax), and thermodynamic mixed layer depth. In addition, the kinematic and thermodynamic boundary layer structures are compared between the dropsonde composites using data in typhoons and hurricanes. Our results show that similar to the hurricane composite, there is a separation between the kinematic and thermodynamic boundary layer heights in typhoons, with the thermodynamic boundary layer depth being much smaller than hinflow and hvtmax in the typhoon boundary layer. All three boundary layer height scales tend to decrease toward the storm center. Our results confirm that the conceptual model of Zhang et al. (2011a) for boundary layer height variation is applicable to typhoon conditions. The kinematic boundary layer structure is generally similar between the typhoon and hurricane composites, but the typhoon composite shows a deeper inflow layer outside the eyewall than the hurricane composite. The thermodynamic structure of the typhoon boundary layer composite is warmer and moister outside the radius of maximum wind speed than the hurricane composite. This difference is attributed to different environmental conditions associated with typhoons compared to the hurricanes studied here. Key Points There is a separation between kinematic and thermodynamic BL heights in typhoons The BL height scales tend to decrease toward the storm center The BL of typhoon composite is warmer and moist outside the RMW © 2015. American Geophysical Union. All Rights Reserved.

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