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Cha H.J.,Pohang University of Science and Technology | Jang D.S.,Huons Co. | Jin K.S.,Pohang University of Science and Technology
Amino Acids | Year: 2017

We analyzed the structure of horseradish peroxidase (HRP) under denaturing conditions of 9 M urea or 6 M guanidine hydrochloride (GdnHCl). Far-UV circular dichroism (CD) spectra indicated the existence of native-like secondary structure of holo-HRP in 9 M urea. In addition, slight changes in near-UV and Soret region CD spectra of holo-HRP in 9 M urea suggest that the tertiary structure of holo-HRP and the binding of heme remain partially intact in this condition. A transition in the thermal unfolding transition curve of holo-HRP in 9 M urea indicated the existence of a considerable amount of secondary structure. However, no secondary structure, tertiary structure, or interaction between heme and HRP were observed in holo-HRP in 6 M GdnHCl. Small-angle X-ray scattering indicated that although distal and proximal domains of holo-HRP in 9 M urea might be partially unfolded, the central region that contains the heme might maintain its tertiary structure. Our results suggest that retention of the heme is essential for maintenance of the structure of HRP under highly denaturing conditions. © 2017 Springer-Verlag Wien


Patent
Foundation University and Huons Co. | Date: 2013-01-22

Provided is an ophthalmic composition containing cyclosporine as an active ingredient and including polyethoxylated castor oil or polyethoxylated hydrogenated castor oil, and a method of preparing the same. Particularly, the ophthalmic composition is prepared as a nanoemulsion having a particle diameter of 100 nm or less simply by mixing and stirring an oil phase and an aqueous phase without using a high speed stirring or shearing machine, so that it is very physiochemically stable and storable for a long time. In addition, the ophthalmic composition causes no irritation to eyes.


Seo M.S.,Gyeongsang National University | Hong S.-W.,Huons Co. | Yeon S.H.,Huons Co. | Kim Y.-M.,Huons Co. | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Ethnopharmacology | Year: 2014

Ethnopharmacological relevance: Magnolia officinalis (MO) is a traditional Chinese herbal medicine that has been used in clinical practice to treat liver disease. The aim of this study is to examine the effects of MO on the development of nonalcoholic fatty liver in hepatocytes.Materials and methods: Human hepatoma-derived HepG2 cells and mouse normal FL83B hepatocytes were exposed to 0.5mM free fatty acids (FFA5; oleate:palmitate, 2:1) for 24 h to simulate conditions of nonalcoholic fatty liver in vitro. The cells were treated with a standardized MO extract I h prior to FFA exposure.Results: MO pretreatment attenuated the increases in intracellular lipid accumulation and triglyceride content in FFA-exposed hepatocytes in a dose-dependent manner. MO pretreatment significantly inhibited both sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP)-lc activation and increases in fatty acid translocase, fatty acid synthase, and stearoyl CoA desaturase-1 protein expression in FFA-exposed hepatocytes in a dose- dependent manner. MO pretreatment markedly induced adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) phosphorylation in hepatocytes. Compound C, an AMPK inhibitor, blocked the inhibitory effect of MO on the increases in intracellular lipid accumulation and triglyceride content induced by FFAs. In hepatocytes pretreated with compound C, MO failed to inhibit SREBP-lc activation and the increases in fatty acid translocase, fatty acid synthase, and stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 protein expression induced by FFAs.Conclusions: Our results indicate that MO attenuates triglyceride biosynthesis and accumulation induced by FFAs in hepatocytes, suggesting its pharmacological potential for the prevention of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. These effects may be mediated by the inhibition of SREBP-lc via AMPK phosphorylation. © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.


Kim S.-J.,Sungkyunkwan University | Yoon S.-J.,Sungkyunkwan University | Kim Y.-M.,Huons Co. | Hong S.-W.,Huons Co. | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Ethnopharmacology | Year: 2014

Ethnopharmacological relevance Lonicera japonica Thunberg is a traditional herbal medicine widely used in East Asia as an anti-bacterial, anti-inflammatory, and antiviral agent. This study was designed to investigate the effects of HS-23, ethanol extract of the dried flower buds of Lonicera japonica, in experimental models of sepsis and elucidate the mechanisms of action of HS-23. Materials and methods Male ICR mice were intravenously administered HS-23 (20 and 40 mg/kg) for 0 (immediately) and 24 h after cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) for survival tests, and HS-23 (40 mg/kg) immediately after CLP for biochemical assays. Results HS-23 improved sepsis-induced mortality, enhanced bacterial clearance, and attenuated multiple organ failure. The mechanisms of action of HS-23 included attenuation of increased toll-like receptor (TLR)4 protein and mRNA expression. HS-23 suppressed sepsis-induced increases in protein expression of myeloid differentiation primary response protein 88, p38 and c-Jun N-terminal kinase in both liver and lung, as well as TIR-domain-containing adapter-inducing interferon-β and interferon regulatory transcription factor 3 protein expression in liver. Conclusion The results of this study revealed that HS-23 attenuated sepsis through suppression of TLR signaling pathways. Therefore, our findings suggest that HS-23 might be useful as a potential therapeutic agent for treatment of sepsis. © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.


Park S.H.,Chungbuk National University | Roh E.,Chungbuk National University | Kim H.S.,Huons Co. | Baek S.-I.,Chungbuk National University | And 5 more authors.
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications | Year: 2013

Lonicerae flos extract (HS-23) is a clinical candidate currently undergoing Phase I trial in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-injected healthy human volunteers, but its molecular basis remains to be defined. Here, we investigated protective effects of HS-23 or its major constituents on Escherichia coli LPS-induced septic mortality in mice. Intravenous treatment with HS-23 rescued LPS-intoxicated C57BL/6J mice under septic conditions, and decreased the levels of cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-1β and high-mobility group box-1 (HMGB-1) in the blood. Chlorogenic acid (CGA) and its isomers were assigned as major constituents of HS-23 in the protection against endotoxemia. As a molecular mechanism, HS-23 or CGA isomers inhibited endotoxin LPS-induced autophosphorylation of the IL-1 receptor-associated kinase 4 (IRAK-4) in mouse peritoneal macrophages as well as the kinase activity of IRAK-4 in cell-free reactions. HS-23 consequently suppressed downstream pathways critical for LPS-induced activation of nuclear factor (NF)-κB or activating protein 1 (AP-1) in the peritoneal macrophages. HS-23 also inhibited various toll-like receptor agonists-induced nitric oxide (NO) production, and down-regulated LPS-induced expression of NF-κB/AP-1-target inflammatory genes in the cells. Taken together, HS-23 or CGA isomers exhibited anti-inflammatory therapy against LPS-induced septic mortality in mice, at least in part, mediated through the inhibition of IRAK-4. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


Jeong H.-U.,Catholic University of Korea | Kong T.Y.,Catholic University of Korea | Kwon S.S.,Catholic University of Korea | Hong S.-W.,Huons Co. | And 5 more authors.
Molecules | Year: 2013

Honokiol is a bioactive component isolated from the medicinal herbs Magnolia officinalis and Magnolia grandiflora that has antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, antithrombotic, and antitumor activities. The inhibitory potentials of honokiol on eight major human cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes 1A2, 2A6, 2B6, 2C8, 2C9, 2C19, 2D6, and 3A4, and four UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs) 1A1, 1A4, 1A9, and 2B7 in human liver microsomes were investigated using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Honokiol strongly inhibited CYP1A2-mediated phenacetin O-deethylation, CYP2C8-mediated amodiaquine N-deethylation, CYP2C9-mediated diclofenac 4-hydroxylation, CYP2C19-mediated [S]-mephenytoin 4-hydroxylation, and UGT1A9-mediated propofol glucuronidation with Ki values of 1.2, 4.9, 0.54, 0.57, and 0.3 μM, respectively. Honokiol also moderately inhibited CYP2B6-mediated bupropion hydroxylation and CYP2D6-mediated bufuralol 1′-hydroxylation with Ki values of 17.5 and 12.0 μM, respectively. These in vitro results indicate that honokiol has the potential to cause pharmacokinetic drug interactions with other co-administered drugs metabolized by CYP1A2, CYP2C8, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, and UGT1A9. © 2013 by the authors.


Chae S.-H.,Seoul National University | Kim S.-I.,Nareso Co. | Yeon S.H.,Huons Co. | Perumalsamy H.,Seoul National University | Ahn Y.-J.,Seoul National University
Journal of Economic Entomology | Year: 2014

An assessment was made of the fumigant toxicity of 36 constituents from lemon balm oil (LBO) and summer savory oil (SSO) and another additional nine previously identified compounds of the oils, as well as of the control efficacy of four experimental spray formulations containing individual oils (0.5 and 0.1% sprays) and spinosad 10% suspension concentrate (SC) to females from B- and neonicotinoid-resistant Q-biotypes of Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae). Based on 24-h LC50 values, Q-biotype females (0.20 μg/cm3) were 40 times less susceptible to dichlorvos than B-biotype females (0.005 μg/cm3). Thymol (LC50, 0.35 μg/cm3) and carvacrol (0.56 μg/cm3) were the most toxic compounds toward Q-biotype females, followed by (1S)-( - )-borneol, α-terpineol, nerol, linalool, and carvone (1.06-1.38 μg/cm 3). The toxicity of these compounds was virtually identical toward both biotype females, indicating that the terpenoids and the insecticides (neonicotinoids and dichlorvos) do not share a common mode of action or elicit cross-resistance. The 0.5% spray of LBO, SSO, and spinosad 10% SC resulted in >90% mortality toward both biotype females. Global efforts to reduce the level of toxic synthetic insecticides in the agricultural environment justify further studies on LBO- and SSO-derived materials as potential contact-action fumigants for the control of B. tabaci populations. © 2014 Entomological Society of America.


PubMed | Korea Institute of Oriental Medicine, Huons Co. and Seoul National University
Type: | Journal: BMC complementary and alternative medicine | Year: 2016

The fermented leaves and stems of Cyclopia intermedia are used to brew honeybush tea, a herbal tea indigenous to South Africa. The aim of this study was to evaluate the protective effect of fermented honeybush extracts (FH ex) and scale-up fermented honeybush extracts (SFH ex) against ultraviolet B (UVB)-induced damage in HaCaT keratinocytes. To this end, we examined UVB-induced cell viability, antioxidant enzymes, and inflammatory mediators in HaCaT cells.UVB significantly decreased HaCaT cell viability, whereas FH ex and SFH ex did not exhibit cytotoxic effects and increased the viability of the HaCaT cells. To further investigate the protective effects of FH ex on UVB-induced oxidative stress in HaCaT cells, the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), pro-inflammatory cytokines and skin barrier function in terms of involucrin, filaggrin, and loricrin were analyzed.UVB-induced treatment reduced the activity of antioxidant enzymes and skin barrier function, while FH ex or SFH ex increased their activity. These results suggest that FH ex exerted cytoprotective activity against UVB-induced oxidative stress in HaCaT cells through stimulation of antioxidant enzymes activities. Furthermore, FH ex and SFH ex suppressed the UVB-induced expression of inflammatory mediators, such as IL-1, IL-6, and IL-8, at mRNA level together with down regulation of matrix metalloproteinase (MMPs). In addition, FH ex and SFH ex reversed the phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) induced by UVB-irradiation. Notably, FH ex and SFH ex markedly inhibited UVB-induced activation of ERK, p38, and JNK. Thus, this agent exhibits anti-oxidative and -inflammatory effects via lowering ROS production, suppressing p38, ERK, and JNK activation, and down-regulating expression of MMPs.These findings suggest that FH ex and SFH ex can be used as a skin anti-photoaging agent.


Patent
Yonsei University and Huons Co. | Date: 2015-03-11

Provided is an ophthalmic composition containing cyclosporine as an active ingredient and including polyethoxylated castor oil or polyethoxylated hydrogenated castor oil, and a method of preparing the same. Particularly, the ophthalmic composition is prepared as a nanoemulsion having a particle diameter of 100 nm or less simply by mixing and stirring an oil phase and an aqueous phase without using a high speed stirring or shearing machine, so that it is very physiochemically stable and storable for a long time. In addition, the ophthalmic composition causes no irritation to eyes.


The present invention relates to a method for preparing a purified extract of Lonicera Japonica THUNBERG and the composition comprising the same for preventing and treating sepsis and septic shock. The purified extract of purified extract of Lonicera Japonica THUNBERG potent antisepsis activity in severe sepsis CLP model test, the effect on MODS, and the inhibitory effect on various pro-inflammatory cytokines such as TNF-alpha, IL-1beta, IFN-gamma, HMGB-1 etc, as well as it showed unexpectedly synergistic effect on the treatment of sepsis and septic shock in case of combining with the commercially available anti-septic agent such as broad-spectrum anti-biotic to the person skilled in the art, therefore, it can be useful in treating and preventing the sepsis and septic shock as a medicament and health functional food.

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