Daegu, South Korea
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Lee H.,Kyungpook National University | Lee H.,Huone Inc | Baek N.,Kyungpook National University | Baek N.,Mobile Graphics Inc | And 6 more authors.
IEICE Electronics Express | Year: 2010

Various handheld devices, in the first place mobile phones, have strong needs regarding 2D vector & bitmap graphics capabilities, including high performance and quality requirements. Open VG is one of widely used low-level 2D vector graphics API's. Currently, fully dedicated Open VG semiconductor chips are relatively expensive and require high power consumption. In contrast, full software implementations show lower performance even with almost 100% of CPU usage, whichwould disrupt other concurrent applications. In this paper, we presenta new cost-effective way of accelerating Open VG, based on wide-spread and inexpensive multimedia-processing hardwares, presently on the mobile phones. Through an extensive use of these multimedia processors, we successfully accelerated our Alex VG, an Open VG software based implementation, especially on its fundamental Open VG features: bit-block transfer, masking, scissoring, color conversion, image transformation, etc. This accelerated implementation comes with a lower power consumption. It exhibits appropriate performance, reaching more than 20 frames per second, even for complicated graphical user experiences. Its CPU utilization ranges from 20% to 30%, while there maining CPU power remains available for other real-time tasks and user applications. This implementation is now commercially available and used in several mid-tier mobile phones.


Baek N.,Kyungpook National University | Baek N.,Mobile Graphics Inc. | Lee H.,Kyungpook National University | Lee H.,Huone Inc.
Digest of Technical Papers - IEEE International Conference on Consumer Electronics | Year: 2011

The needs for safety-critical 3D graphics features are rapidly increasing. OpenGL SC is the safety critical profile of the famous OpenGL API. We present a cost-effective way of providing OpenGL SC emulation over the OpenGL 1.1 pipeline with the multi-texture extension. ©2011 IEEE.


Baek N.,Kyungpook National University | Baek N.,Mobile Graphics Inc. | Lee H.,Huone Inc.
Digest of Technical Papers - IEEE International Conference on Consumer Electronics | Year: 2012

We present our design and implementation of the OpenGL SC (safety-critical) 3D graphics standard, as a software emulation library over the widely used OpenGL ES 1.1 hardware. It accomplished a remarkable cost-down of the OpenGL SC products, to finally provide highly reliable full 3D graphics features to the safety-critical consumer electronics devices. © 2012 IEEE.


Lee H.,Kyungpook National University | Lee H.,Huone Inc. | Baek N.,Kyungpook National University | Baek N.,Mobile Graphics Inc. | Hahn J.K.,George Washington University
IEICE Electronics Express | Year: 2010

OpenGL ES 1.1 is a de facto standard for the 3D graphics API on embedded systems and handheld devices including mobile phones. We present design process and implementation results of our software OpenGL ES 1.1 product. Since the standard document only specifies the API functions and their external actions, the implementer should design all the details of the internal 3D graphics pipeline and exhaustively optimize them. To clearly express the internal pipeline and to explicitly represent related state variables, we introduce some enhancements to UML activity diagrams. Based on these enhanced diagrams, we accomplished the initial draft design and iterative optimizations of the internal pipeline. During the implementation stage, starting from our previous wrapper implementation, we used an iterative block-by-block implementation scheme with immediate verifications. Finally, we achieved a full software implementation of OpenGL ES 1.1, which passes all the official conformance test suites and also satisfies all the requirements in the standard specification. This product is now ready for commercial services. © IEICE 2010.


Park J.,Kyungpook National University | Baek N.,Kyungpook National University | Lee H.,Huone Inc.
1st IEEE Global Conference on Consumer Electronics 2012, GCCE 2012 | Year: 2012

In these days, smaller devices are possible to show graphics output, through attaching small-size LCD panel displays. Our target system is a small embedded system with an LCD panel. As a typical low-tier embedded system, it has a low-end CPU and restricted memories. We aimed to build-up a 2D graphics module on it. After analyzing the system requirement, we found that the hardiest restriction is the size of available memory. As an alternative to the full-scale modules, our design shows a TUI (text user interface) model, which is similar to the Unix Curses library and/or the primitive graphics system used on earlier PC user interfaces. Our design has a drawback of restricted controllability of 30x40 character resolutions on the screen, rather than 240x320 pixel resolutions, while it enables pop-up menus and screen back buffering, with less than 7K extra memory usage. © 2012 IEEE.


Lee I.,HUONE Inc. | Lee H.,HUONE Inc. | Baek N.,Kyungpook National University
Communications in Computer and Information Science | Year: 2011

There are a number of formats and API (Application Program Interface)'s which are used as standard in computer graphics area. Sometimes, format or API is implemented using other format or API's for hardware acceleration and saving time and cost to implement. In our research, we list major computer graphics API's and discuss about current status, technical issues, advantages and disadvantages of each cases of implementation on other API's and dependencies between graphics standards and middleware. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.


Baek N.,Kyungpook National University | Lee H.,Huone Inc.
Proceedings of the 2012 IEEE International Conference on Multimedia and Expo Workshops, ICMEW 2012 | Year: 2012

OpenGL SC, the safety critical profile of OpenGL plays the major role for the graphical user interfaces, especially in the safety-critical markets, including avionics, military, medical and automotive applications. In other side, OpenGL ES, the embedded systems version of OpenGL, has many commercial implementations. In this demonstration, we show that the OpenGL SC features can be provided over the wide-spread OpenGL ES graphics boards. This is the most cost-effective way of implementing OpenGL SC, at this time. Our result is the first implementation based on OpenGL ES 1.1 hardware. We will demonstrate this OpenGL SC-over-OpenGL ES 1.1 implementation, and show its successful behaviors. © 2012 IEEE.


Baek N.,Kyungpook National University | Baek N.,Mobile Graphics Inc. | Lee H.,Huone Inc. | Lee H.,Kyungpook National University
Multimedia Tools and Applications | Year: 2012

In this paper, we present an efficient way of implementing OpenGL ES 1.1 3D graphics API library for the environments with hardware-supported OpenGL facility, typically as desktop PCs. Although Open GL ES was started from the existing OpenGL features, it rapidly became the standard 3D graphics library customized for embedded systems through introducing fixed-point arithmetic operations, buffer management with fixed-point data type supports, completely new texture mapping functions and others. Currently, it is the official 3D graphics API for Google Android, Apple iPhone, Sony PlayStation3, etc. In this paper, we achieved improvements on the arithmetic operations for the fixed-point number representation, which is the most characteristic data type for OpenGL ES 1.1. For the conversion of fixedpoint data types to the floating-point number representations for the underlying OpenGL, we show the way of efficient conversion processes even with satisfying OpenGL ES standard requirements. We also introduced a specialized memory management scheme to manage the converted data from the buffer containing fixedpoint numbers. In the case of texture processing, the requirements in both standards are quite different, and thus we used completely new software-implementations. Our final implementation of OpenGL ES library provides all of more than 200 functions in the standard specification and passed its conformance test, to show its compliance with the standard. From the efficiency point of view, we measured its execution times for several OpenGL ES-specific application programs and achieved remarkable improvements. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.


Baek N.,Kyungpook National University | Lee H.,Huone Inc.
IEICE Transactions on Information and Systems | Year: 2012

The need for the OpenGL-family of the 3D rendering API's are highly increasing, especially for graphical human-machine interfaces on various systems. In the case of safety-critical market for avionics, military, medical and automotive applications, OpenGL SC, the safety critical profile of the OpenGL standard plays the major role for graphical interfaces. In this paper, we present an efficient way of implementing OpenGL SC 3D graphics API for the environments with hardwaresupported OpenGL 1.1 and its multi-texture extension facility, which is widely available on recent embedded systems. Our approach achieved the OpenGL SC features at the low development cost on the embedded systems and also on general personal computers. Our final result shows its compliance with the OpenGL SC standard specification. From the efficiency point of view, we measured its execution times for various application programs, to show a remarkable speed-up. Copyright © 2012 The Institute of Electronics, Information and Communication Engineers.

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