St. John's, Canada
St. John's, Canada

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Wildish D.J.,Canadian Department of Fisheries and Oceans | Wildish D.J.,Huntsman Marine Science Center | Martell D.J.,Canadian Department of Fisheries and Oceans
Zoosystematics and Evolution | Year: 2013

Describing and comparing epidermal integumentary pigment patterns is a relatively under-used method for taxonomically distinguishing many species of closely related amphipods (Crustacea, Amphipoda). Three general methods are available to do this: comparing photographs; creation of detailed drawings of one or more somites; and drawings of the pigment patterns of the whole dorsal body surface. We describe a simple digital method by which diagrams can be made of the dorsal pigment patterns (DPP) of the cephalon, peraeon, and pleon. Digital DPP diagrams are an inexpensive approach to the inclusion of epidermal pigment patterns as a means of identifying some, although not all, species of amphipods.© 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

Schmidt-Rhaesa A.,University of Hamburg | Pohle G.,Huntsman Marine Science Center | Gaudette J.,Canadian Department of Fisheries and Oceans | Burdett-Coutts V.,Canadian Department of Fisheries and Oceans
Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom | Year: 2013

Nectonema species are parasites of decapod crustaceans and the only known representatives of the otherwise freshwater/terrestrial taxon Nematomorpha. We report the American lobster, Homarus americanus, as a new host for Nectonema agile, a first record among astacidean decapods. A female, about 590 mm long, was found in the body cavity of one female lobster specimen. We assume lobster to be a very rare host for Nectonema. © 2012 Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom.

Wildish D.J.,Canadian Department of Fisheries and Oceans | Wildish D.J.,Huntsman Marine Science Center
Journal of Natural History | Year: 2012

A lineal "island" theory is proposed to account for the dispersal of marine/estuarine, supralittoral talitrid populations, both to and from isolated shore "islands" on continental and true oceanic islands. Evolution may occur following dispersal to shores that are contiguous with ecologically open habitats, inclusive of sub-tropical forest litter and caves. Specific hypotheses of the lineal "island" theory are therefore: the conventional wrack hypothesis 1 - direct from marine supralittoral wrack to subtropical forest litter; the driftwood hypothesis 2(a) - direct from marine supralittoral driftwood to subtropical forest litter; the driftwood hypothesis 2(b) - direct from the marine supralittoral driftwood to caves opening on a marine supralittoral; and the driftwood hypothesis 2(c) - direct from the marine supralittoral driftwood via caves to subtropical forest litter. Circumstantial evidence supporting each hypothesis is presented using the ecology and distribution data of the talitrid fauna of the northeast Atlantic islands, north of 25°N and south of 40°N, including the Canaries, Madeira and the Azores archipelagos. The currently known talitrid fauna of all these islands includes 15 species: seven endemic, subtropical landhoppers, two synanthropically introduced landhoppers, three wrack generalists, one sand-burrowing specialist, one specialist cavehopper, and one specialist driftwood hopper. Based on distributional data from the northeastern Atantic islands, specialist driftwood hoppers have a long distance dispersal capability, which makes them potential colonizers of distant oceanic islands. Talitrids provide an excellent model of dispersal and speciation, whose evolutionary pathways can be solved by modern genetic methods. © 2012 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

Tosh J.J.,University of Guelph | Garber A.F.,Huntsman Marine science Center | Garber A.F.,Canadian Department of Fisheries and Oceans | Trippel E.A.,Canadian Department of Fisheries and Oceans | Robinson J.A.B.,University of Guelph
Journal of Animal Science | Year: 2010

Variance components were estimated for 2 body size traits of Atlantic cod at 2 time points. Wild-caught founders from 3 regions off eastern North America were spawned and their progeny were reared at 2 locations in 2 consecutive years. Full-sib families (n = 148) were kept separate until individuals achieved a size large enough to be tagged. At that time (220 d of age), BW and length of 47,637 offspring from 90 sires and 89 dams were recorded. The juveniles were then transferred to sea cages at 3 sites, where they grew further for more than a year. A second set of measurements was collected on 11,839 fish (634 d of age). Dispersion parameters were estimated using REML in bivariate analyses. Models included fixed degree-days (covariate), year × location subclasses, and genetic groups composed of connected families within region of origin. Random factors were animal (additive genetic effects), considering known relationships among the fish; dam (maternal effects); and family (effects common to full-sibs). At tagging, heritability estimates were small to moderate (0.15 and 0.24 for BW and length, respectively; SE = 0.14), similar to or somewhat larger than the proportions of variation ascribed to dams and families (11 to 16%). Later, heritability estimates were greater (0.27 ± 0.08 and 0.31 ± 0.09 for BW and length, respectively), whereas dam and family variance proportions were very small (3 to 4%). Omitting maternal or family components substantially increased the values obtained for heritability at both time points. At the later point, failure to account for maternal effects inflated heritability estimates by about 24% for both traits; ignoring family effects had double the impact. These effects persisted even though endogenous feeding lasts only a couple of weeks in this species and the fish had been pooled since tagging. Discarding data from parents that were completely confounded with their mates decreased heritability estimates slightly (by 0.04, for both traits) at the second point, with no loss of precision despite 15% fewer records and 34% fewer parents; the improved design seemed to have more fully disentangled the additive genetic effects. Estimates of genetic correlations between traits and between time points were very large (>0.89). The results imply that genetic variation exists for body size of cod at both stages. Poor data structure and inadequate models can potentially lead to overstatement of heritability, and thus also of the predicted selection response. © 2010 American Society of Animal Science.

Gonzalez-Ortegon E.,Bangor University | Gonzalez-Ortegon E.,Spanish Institute of Oceanography | Sargent P.,Northwest Atlantic Fisheries Center | Pohle G.,Huntsman Marine Science Center | Martinez-Lage A.,University of La Coruña
Aquatic Invasions | Year: 2015

This study documents the introduction of the European Baltic prawn, Palaemon adspersus Rathke, 1837 to the coastal waters of northeastern North America, specifically the west coast of Newfoundland and the Magdalen Islands in the Gulf of St. Lawrence, Canada. Species identification was verified using morphological and genetic criteria. In September 2011, the first specimens of P. adspersus were collected in Gulf of St. Lawrence waters near Stephenville Crossing, Newfoundland, Canada. In 2012, additional P. adspersus specimens were collected in this area and at St. Andrew’s, located further south in western Newfoundland and in 2013 several egg-bearing females were collected further north in York Harbour. Accidental transport by ballast water of ships seems the likely vector for transport of Baltic prawn to the Gulf of St. Lawrence from Northern Europe or the Caspian Sea. It is possible that this shrimp has a wider presence in Atlantic Canadian waters but, due to its close resemblance to native shrimp species, it may have been previously misidentified, as occurred with specimens collected from the Magdalen Islands. We further expect that other species of the genus Palaemon, including P. elegans Rathke, 1837 from the Baltic Sea or northeastern United States, and P. macrodactylus Rathbun, 1902 from the northeastern United States, may invade the Gulf of St. Lawrence. We provide an illustrated key for the identification of these exotic Palaemon species and to differentiate them from native members of the subfamily Palaemoninae. © 2015 The Author(s).

Novak C.W.,University of British Columbia | Novak C.W.,Vancouver Island University | Lewis D.L.,Vancouver Island University | Collicutt B.,Vancouver Island University | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Fish Diseases | Year: 2016

A bacteria–parasite challenge model was used to study the role of sea lice, Lepeophtheirus salmonis (Copepoda), as a vector of Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida. Three hypotheses were tested: (i) L. salmonis can acquire A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida via water bath exposure; (ii) L. salmonis can acquire the bacteria via parasitizing infected Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar; and (iii) L. salmonis can transmit the bacteria to naïve Atlantic salmon via parasitism. Adult L. salmonis exposed to varying A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida suspensions (101–107 cells mL−1) for 1.0, 3.0 or 6.0 h acquired the bacteria externally (12.5–100%) and internally (10.0–100%), with higher prevalences associated with the highest concentrations and exposures. After exposure to 107 cells mL−1, viable A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida could be isolated from the external carapace of L. salmonis for 120 h. Lepeophtheirus salmonis also acquired the bacteria externally and internally from parasitizing infected fish. Bacterial transmission was observed only when L. salmonis had acquired the pathogen internally via feeding on ‘donor fish’ and then by parasitizing smaller (<50 g) ‘naive’ fish. Under specific experimental conditions, L. salmonis can transfer A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida via parasitism; however, its role as a mechanical or biological vector was not defined. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd

Salvo F.,Memorial University of Newfoundland | Wiklund H.,Natural History Museum in London | Dufour S.C.,Memorial University of Newfoundland | Hamoutene D.,Northwest Atlantic Fisheries Center | And 2 more authors.
Zootaxa | Year: 2014

A new species of Ophryotrocha was discovered on whalebones in Greenland (120 m depth) and at finfish aquaculture sites in Newfoundland (30-70 m depth), where it is considered to be a bioindicator of aquaculture-related organic enrichment. Phylogenetic analyses based on three genes (COI, 16S mitochondrial and H3 nuclear genes) show close affinities with O. lobifera and O. craigsmithi, two species also found on both whalebones and at aquaculture sites (North Sea), and with O. shieldsi from aquaculture sites in Tasmania. The new species is named Ophryotrocha cyclops sp. nov. due to the juxta-posed, quasi-fused central eyes that give the impression of a single eye in live specimens. Copyright © 2014 Magnolia Press.

PubMed | Huntsman Marine Science Center
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Fish physiology and biochemistry | Year: 2013

The sea raven, Hemitripterus americanus, is a sit-and-wait, low metabolic rate, marine teleost. The objective of this study was to determine i) whether cortisol implantation (50 mg. kg(-1)) for 7 days altered hepatocyte metabolism, and hepatocyte responsiveness to epinephrine, glucagon and insulin, and ii) whether 8 weeks of food-deprivation modified the above response. Cortisol implantation significantly increased hepatocyte total glucose production and oxidation from alanine compared to the sham group. There was no cortisol effect on glycogen breakdown, suggesting that the activation of other pathways, including gluconeogenesis, are required to account for the increased glucose production. Epinephrine-mediated (10(-)5M) glycogen breakdown and insulin-mediated (10(-8)M) total glucose production were enhanced in hepatocytes of cortisol implanted sea ravens, but there were no change in any glucagon (10(-7)M) effects. The enhanced glycogen breakdown in the absence of similar increases in total glucose production with epinephrine indicates mobilization of carbohydrate reserves for endogenous use by the liver.Food-deprivation for 8 weeks significantly decreased condition factor, plasma cortisol concentration and liver glycogen content in the sea raven, but had no effect on plasma glucose concentration. Hepatocyte total glucose production and flux rates from alanine increased significantly with food-deprivation. Moreover, food-deprivation increased responsiveness of total hepatocyte glucose production to the actions of glucagon and insulin, but not to epinephrine; none of these effects were modified by cortisol implantation.Our results indicate that cortisol in the sea raven exerts both a direct and an indirect or permissive effect on hepatocyte metabolism by modifying hepatocyte responsiveness to epinephrine and insulin stimulation. Cortisol implantation did not modify the effects of glucagon or food-deprivation in this species.

PubMed | Huntsman Marine Science Center
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Fish physiology and biochemistry | Year: 2013

Previous studies have reported very low rates of gluconeogenesis from lactate in sea raven (Hemitripterus americanus) hepatocytes compared to other teleosts studied. This study examines whether hepatic cell redox or lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) characteristics may explain this observation. Sea raven hepatic optimal LDH activities (pyruvate reductase direction) were more than 40 times less compared with rainbow trout liver values (40 vs 1914 molmin(-1)g(-1) protein). The Km(lactate) was 9.24 and 0.86 mM for sea raven and trout hepatic LDH, but the Km(pyruvate) was similar between the two species (0.11 and 0.21 mM, respectively). These results suggested that sea raven liver LDH did not favour lactate use and was more indicative of the mammalian M-isozyme. Gel electrophoresis showed a predominant intermediate isozyme, with a small amount of the M-type LDH. Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) was localized to the mitochondrial compartment, while there was no apparent mitochondrial glutamate-oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT) activity. No in vitro lactate flux to glucose was found in untreated, 10 mM ethanol-treated, or 3 mM NH4Cl-treated sea raven hepatocytes, although CO2 production from lactate was decreased by ethanol and increased by NH4Cl. These results provide evidence that cell redox does not limit gluconeogenesis from lactate, while low activities and the kinetic characteristics of LDH may partially explain the low lactate gluconeogenesis reported in sea raven hepatocytes.

PubMed | Huntsman Marine Science Center
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Fish physiology and biochemistry | Year: 2013

Coeliac artery blood flow (Fca) before and after feeding was recorded in the sea raven. To obtain basic information about the scope of cardiovascular adjustment in the sea raven, a separate series of experiments was performed, in which ventral (Pva), and dorsal (Pda) aortic blood pressure, heart rate (HR) and cardiac output (jaz) were monitored during rest and encouraged exercise.Measurements of coeliac artery flow showed that visceral blood flow is substantial, particularly after feeding, and variations in the visceral vascular conductance affect Pda directly. Simultaneous recordings of intestinal and dorsal aortic blood pressures showed no measurable difference in the two arterial pressures, refuting the idea of a vascular control at the level of the main coeliac artery. Thus, in the sea raven, the adrenergic tonus affecting the visceral vasculature presumably acts at the arteriolar level.Sea ravens encouraged to exercise increased theirjaz by 64%; 32% through HR and 25% through stroke volume. The increase injaz during encouraged exercise was sufficient to produce an elevation of both Pva and Pda, despite an increase of systemic vascular conductance, -adrenoceptor blockade with sotalol, however, severely impaired the increase injaz during exercise, and the change in Pda was reversed.During rest there were both an adrenergic and a cholinergic tonus affecting the HR, as revealed by the effects of injected pharmacological antagonists. Swimming activity decreased the cholinergic tonus, while the adrenergic tonus increased.

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