Huntingdon, PA, United States
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McDonald M.,Massachusetts Institute of Technology | McNamara B.R.,University of Waterloo | McNamara B.R.,Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics | Weeren R.J.V.,Harvard - Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics | And 21 more authors.
Astrophysical Journal | Year: 2015

We present new ultraviolet, optical, and X-ray data on the Phoenix galaxy cluster (SPT-CLJ2344-4243). Deep optical imaging reveals previously undetected filaments of star formation, extending to radii of ∼50-100 kpc in multiple directions. Combined UV-optical spectroscopy of the central galaxy reveals a massive (2 x109 Mo), young (∼4.5 Myr) population of stars, consistent with a time-averaged star formation rate of 610 ± 50 Mo yr-1. We report a strong detection of O vi λλ1032,1038, which appears to originate primarily in shock-heated gas, but may contain a substantial contribution (>1000 Mo yr-1) from the cooling intracluster medium (ICM). We confirm the presence of deep X-ray cavities in the inner ∼10 kpc, which are among the most extreme examples of radio-mode feedback detected to date, implying jet powers of 2-7 x1045 erg s-1. We provide evidence that the active galactic nucleus inflating these cavities may have only recently transitioned from "quasar-mode" to "radio-mode," and may currently be insufficient to completely offset cooling. A model-subtracted residual X-ray image reveals evidence for prior episodes of strong radio-mode feedback at radii of ∼100 kpc, with extended "ghost" cavities indicating a prior epoch of feedback roughly 100 Myr ago. This residual image also exhibits significant asymmetry in the inner ∼200 kpc (0.15R500), reminiscent of infalling cool clouds, either due to minor mergers or fragmentation of the cooling ICM. Taken together, these data reveal a rapidly evolving cool core which is rich with structure (both spatially and in temperature), is subject to a variety of highly energetic processes, and yet is cooling rapidly and forming stars along thin, narrow filaments. © 2015. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved..


McDonald M.,Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Bulbul E.,Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Haan T.D.,University of California at Berkeley | Miller E.D.,Massachusetts Institute of Technology | And 23 more authors.
Astrophysical Journal | Year: 2016

We present the results of an X-ray spectral analysis of 153 galaxy clusters observed with the Chandra, XMM-Newton, and Suzaku space telescopes. These clusters, which span 0 < z < 1.5, were drawn from a larger, mass-selected sample of galaxy clusters discovered in the 2500 square degree South Pole Telescope Sunyaev Zel'dovich (SPT-SZ) survey. With a total combined exposure time of 9.1 Ms, these data yield the strongest constraints to date on the evolution of the metal content of the intracluster medium (ICM). We find no evidence for strong evolution in the global (r < R 500) ICM metallicity (dZ/dz = -0.06 ± 0.04 Z o), with a mean value at z = 0.6 of Z o and a scatter of σ Z = 0.08 ± 0.01 Z o. These results imply that the emission-weighted metallicity has not changed by more than 40% since z = 1 (at 95% confidence), consistent with the picture of an early (z > 1) enrichment. We find, in agreement with previous works, a significantly higher mean value for the metallicity in the centers of cool core clusters versus non-cool core clusters. We find weak evidence for evolution in the central metallicity of cool core clusters (dZ/dz = -0.21 ± 0.11 Z o), which is sufficient to account for this enhanced central metallicity over the past ∼10 Gyr. We find no evidence for metallicity evolution outside of the core (dZ/dz = -0.03 ± 0.06 Z o), and no significant difference in the core-excised metallicity between cool core and non-cool core clusters. This suggests that strong radio-mode active galactic nucleus feedback does not significantly alter the distribution of metals at . Given the limitations of current-generation X-ray telescopes in constraining the ICM metallicity at z > 1, significant improvements on this work will likely require next-generation X-ray missions. © 2016. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved.


Luo B.,Pennsylvania State University | Brandt W.N.,Pennsylvania State University | Hall P.B.,York University | Wu J.,Harvard - Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics | And 8 more authors.
Astrophysical Journal | Year: 2015

We present an X-ray and multiwavelength study of 33 weak emission-line quasars (WLQs) and 18 quasars that are analogs of the extreme WLQ, PHL 1811, at z ≈ 0.52.9. New Chandra 1.59.5 ks exploratory observations were obtained for 32 objects while the others have archival X-ray observations. Significant fractions of these luminous type 1 quasars are distinctly X-ray weak compared to typical quasars, including 16 (48%) of the WLQs and 17 (94%) of the PHL 1811 analogs with average X-ray weakness factors of 17 and 39, respectively. We measure a relatively hard ( 1.16 +0.32 -0.37 ) effective power-law photon index for a stack of the X-ray weak subsample, suggesting X-ray absorption, and spectral analysis of one PHL 1811 analog, J1521+5202, also indicates significant intrinsic X-ray absorption. We compare composite Sloan Digital Sky Survey spectra for the X-ray weak and X-ray normal populations and find several opticalUV tracers of X-ray weakness, e.g., Fe II rest-frame equivalent width (REW) and relative color. We describe how orientation effects under our previously proposed shielding-gas scenario can likely unify the X-ray weak and X-ray normal populations. We suggest that the shielding gas may naturally be understood as a geometrically thick inner accretion disk that shields the broad line region from the ionizing continuum. If WLQs and PHL 1811 analogs have very high Eddington ratios, the inner disk could be significantly puffed up (e.g., a slim disk). Shielding of the broad emission-line region by a geometrically thick disk may have a significant role in setting the broad distributions of C IV REW and blueshift for quasars more generally. © 2015. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved.


Getman K.V.,Pennsylvania State University | Feigelson E.D.,Pennsylvania State University | Kuhn M.A.,Pennsylvania State University | Broos P.S.,Pennsylvania State University | And 5 more authors.
Astrophysical Journal | Year: 2014

A major impediment to understanding star formation in massive star-forming regions (MSFRs) is the absence of a reliable stellar chronometer to unravel their complex star formation histories. We present a new estimation of stellar ages using a new method that employs near-infrared (NIR) and X-ray photometry, Age JX. Stellar masses are derived from X-ray luminosities using the LX -M relation from the Taurus cloud. J-band luminosities are compared to mass-dependent pre-main-sequence (PMS) evolutionary models to estimate ages. Age JX is sensitive to a wide range of evolutionary stages, from disk-bearing stars embedded in a cloud to widely dispersed older PMS stars. The Massive Young Star-Forming Complex Study in Infrared and X-ray (MYStIX) project characterizes 20 OB-dominated MSFRs using X-ray, mid-infrared, and NIR catalogs. The Age JX method has been applied to 5525 out of 31,784 MYStIX Probable Complex Members. We provide a homogeneous set of median ages for over 100 subclusters in 15 MSFRs; median subcluster ages range between 0.5 Myr and 5 Myr. The important science result is the discovery of age gradients across MYStIX regions. The wide MSFR age distribution appears as spatially segregated structures with different ages. The Age JX ages are youngest in obscured locations in molecular clouds, intermediate in revealed stellar clusters, and oldest in distributed populations. The NIR color index J-H, a surrogate measure of extinction, can serve as an approximate age predictor for young embedded clusters. © 2014. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved.


Townsley L.K.,Pennsylvania State University | Broos P.S.,Pennsylvania State University | Garmire G.P.,Huntingdon Institute for X ray Astronomy LLC | Bouwman J.,Max Planck Institute for Astronomy | And 4 more authors.
Astrophysical Journal, Supplement Series | Year: 2014

We present the Massive Star-forming Regions (MSFRs) Omnibus X-ray Catalog (MOXC), a compendium of X-ray point sources from Chandra/ACIS observations of a selection of MSFRs across the Galaxy, plus 30 Doradus in the Large Magellanic Cloud. MOXC consists of 20,623 X-ray point sources from 12 MSFRs with distances ranging from 1.7 kpc to 50 kpc. Additionally, we show the morphology of the unresolved X-ray emission that remains after the cataloged X-ray point sources are excised from the ACIS data, in the context of Spitzer and WISE observations that trace the bubbles, ionization fronts, and photon-dominated regions that characterize MSFRs. In previous work, we have found that this unresolved X-ray emission is dominated by hot plasma from massive star wind shocks. This diffuse X-ray emission is found in every MOXC MSFR, clearly demonstrating that massive star feedback (and the several-million-degree plasmas that it generates) is an integral component of MSFR physics. © 2014. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved.


Arumugasamy P.,Pennsylvania State University | Pavlov G.G.,Pennsylvania State University | Garmire G.P.,Huntingdon Institute for X ray Astronomy LLC
Astrophysical Journal | Year: 2015

We present the results of detailed X-ray analysis of two black-widow pulsars (BWPs), J1446-4701 and J1311-3430. PSR J1446-4701 is a BWP with orbital parameters near the median values of the sample of known BWPs. Its X-ray emission that was detected by XMM-Newton is well characterized by a soft power-law (PL) spectrum (photon index Γ≈3), and it shows no significant orbital modulations. In view of a lack of radio eclipses and an optical non-detection, the system most likely has a low orbital inclination. PSR J1311-3430 is an extreme BWP with a very compact orbit and the lowest minimum mass companion. Our Chandra data confirm the hard Γ≈1.3 emission seen in previous observations. Through phase-restricted spectral analysis, we found a hint (∼2.6σ) of spectral hardening around pulsar inferior conjunction. We also provide a uniform analysis of the 12 BWPs observed with Chandra and compare their X-ray properties. Pulsars with soft, Γ>2.5 emission seem to have lower than average X-ray and γ-ray luminosities. We do not, however, see any other prominent correlation between the pulsar's X-ray emission characteristics and any of its other properties. The contribution of the intra-binary shock to the total X-ray emission, if any, is not discernible in this sample of pulsars with shallow observations. © 2015. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved..


Garmire G.P.,Huntingdon Institute for X ray Astronomy LLC
Astrophysical Journal | Year: 2013

We report the discovery of a probable dwarf galaxy colliding with NGC 1232. This collision is visible only in the X-ray spectral band, and it is creating a region of shocked gas with a temperature of 5.8 MK covering an impact area 7.25 kpc in diameter. The X-ray luminosity is 3.7 × 1038 erg s -1. The long lifetime of this gas against radiative and adiabatic cooling should permit the use of the luminous afterglow from such collisions to be used as a way of estimating their importance in galaxy evolution. © 2013. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved.

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