Boyle N.J.,Hunter Water Australia |
Evans G.M.,University of Newcastle
Water Science and Technology | Year: 2013
The effect of using small-scale, high surface area, nanoparticles to supplement polymer-conditioned wastewater sludge dewatering was investigated. Aerobically digested sludge and waste activated sludge sourced from the Hunter Valley, NSW, Australia, were tested with titanium dioxide nanoparticles. The sludge samples were dosed with the nanoparticles in an attempt to adsorb a component of the charged biopolymer surfactants present naturally in sludge. The sludge was conditioned with a cationic polymer. The dewatering characteristics were assessed by measuring the specific resistance to filtration through a modified time-to-filter testing apparatus. The solids content of the dosed samples was determined by a mass balance and compared to the original solids content in the activated sludge. Test results indicated that nanoparticle addition modified the structure of the sludge and provided benefits in terms of the dewatering rate. The samples dosed with nanoparticles exhibited faster water removal, indicating a more permeable filter cake and hence more permeable sludge. A concentration of 2-4% nanoparticles was required to achieve a noticeable benefit. As a comparison, the sludge samples were also tested with a larger particle size, powdered activated carbon (PAC). It was found that the PAC did provide some minor benefits to sludge dewatering but was outperformed by the nanoparticles. The solids content of the final sludge was increased by a maximum of up to 0.6%. The impact of the order sequence of particles and polymer was also investigated. It was found that nanoparticles added before polymer addition provided the best dewatering performance. This outcome was consistent with current theories and previous research through the literature. An economic analysis was undertaken to confirm the viability of the technology for implementation at a full-scale plant. It was found that, currently, this technology is unlikely to be favourable unless the nanoparticles can be sourced for a low cost. © IWA Publishing 2013.
Perry D.C.,Hunter Water Australia |
Stevenson P.,University of Hull
Chemical Engineering Science | Year: 2015
Results for the rate of absorption of carbon dioxide gas into a pneumatic (i.e. continuously rising) foam formed from a sodium carbonate-bicarbonate buffer solution stabilised by a polyglycol frother are presented. Previous studies upon the use of gas-liquid foam for gas absorption operations have demonstrated limited potential for the technique, mainly because the liquid films rapidly become saturated with the absorbing gas due to the relatively low liquid fraction within the foam. However, by adding washwater to the free surface of the foam we created a wetter and more stable foam that (1) exhibits a high liquid fraction and therefore avoids film saturation, and (2) creates greater liquid advection past the gas-liquid surfaces, thereby enhancing the mass transfer coefficient. The interfacial area achieved within the foam was in the range 2100-3200m2m-3 (i.e. much higher than in conventional gas-liquid contactors and the liquid-side mass transfer coefficient was the same magnitude as that achieved in packed beds (i.e. 4-8×10-5ms-1). Indeed, by modelling the foam as a packed-bed of solid spheres (with no adjustable constants), the mass-transfer coefficient in a bed of closely packed solid spheres was found to be in satisfactory agreement with the mass-transfer measured in the wet gas-liquid foam. The hydrodynamic state, and the slip velocity between gas and liquid phases is required for the design of wet foam absorption columns, and this can be estimated using a theory of pneumatic foam (Stevenson, 2007). © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.
McArdle P.,Hunter Water Australia |
Gleeson J.,Hunter Water Australia |
Gleeson J.,University of Newcastle |
Hammond T.,WorleyParsons Group Inc |
And 3 more authors.
Water Science and Technology | Year: 2011
Urban impervious areas provide a guaranteed source of runoff, especially in cities with high rainfall - this represents a source of water with low sensitivity to unfavourable climate change. Whilst the potential to reuse stormwater has long been recognised, its quality has largely limited usage to non-potable applications requiring the use of a third-pipe network, a prohibitively expensive option in established urban areas. Given recent advances in membrane filtration, this study investigates the potential of harvesting and treating stormwater to a potable standard to enable use of the potable distribution network. A case study based on the Throsby Creek catchment in Newcastle explores the issue. The high seasonally uniform rainfall provides insight into the maximum potential of such an option. Multicriterion optimisation was used to identify Pareto optimal solutions for harvesting, storing and treating stormwater. It is shown that harvesting and treating stormwater from a 13 km2 catchment can produce yields ranging from 8.5 to 14.2 ML/day at costs ranging from AU$2.60/kL to AU$2.89/kL, which may become viable as the cost of traditional supply continues to grow. However, there are significant social impacts to deal with including alienation of public land for storage and community acceptance of treated stormwater. © IWA Publishing 2010.