Waratah, Australia
Waratah, Australia

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Kamien B.,Hunter Genetics | Kamien B.,University of Newcastle | Harraway J.,Sullivan Nicolaides Pathology | Lundie B.,Sullivan Nicolaides Pathology | And 5 more authors.
American Journal of Medical Genetics, Part A | Year: 2014

We present a patient with a behavioral disorder, epilepsy, and autism spectrum disorder who has a 520kb chromosomal deletion at 15q26.1 encompassing three genes: ST8SIA2, C15orf32, and FAM174B. Alpha-2,8-Sialyltransferase 2 (ST8SIA2) is expressed in the developing brain and appears to play an important role in neuronal migration, axon guidance and synaptic plasticity. It has recently been implicated in a genome wide association study as a potential factor underlying autism, and has also been implicated in the pathogenesis of bipolar disorder and schizophrenia. This case provides supportive evidence that ST8SIA2 haploinsufficiency may play a role in neurobehavioral phenotypes. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


PubMed | University of New South Wales, Hunter Genetics, University of Zürich, Robert Wood Johnson Medical School and 4 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: BMJ open | Year: 2016

X linked intellectual disability (XLID) syndromes account for a substantial number of males with ID. Much progress has been made in identifying the genetic cause in many of the syndromes described 20-40years ago. Next generation sequencing (NGS) has contributed to the rapid discovery of XLID genes and identifying novel mutations in known XLID genes for many of these syndromes.2 NGS approaches were employed to identify mutations in X linked genes in families with XLID disorders. 1 involved exome sequencing of genes on the X chromosome using the Agilent SureSelect Human X Chromosome Kit. The second approach was to conduct targeted NGS sequencing of 90 known XLID genes.We identified the same mutation, a c.12928 G>C transversion in the HUWE1 gene, which gives rise to a p.G4310R missense mutation in 2 XLID disorders: Juberg-Marsidi syndrome (JMS) and Brooks syndrome. Although the original families with these disorders were considered separate entities, they indeed overlap clinically. A third family was also found to have a novel HUWE1 mutation.As we identified a HUWE1 mutation in an affected male from the original family reported by Juberg and Marsidi, it is evident the syndrome does not result from a mutation in ATRX as reported in the literature. Additionally, our data indicate that JMS and Brooks syndromes are allelic having the same HUWE1 mutation.


Truong H.T.,Charles Sturt University | Truong H.T.,Virginia Commonwealth University | Truong H.T.,KeyGene N.V. | Dudding T.,Hunter Genetics | And 3 more authors.
BMC Medical Genetics | Year: 2010

Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS) is a complex syndrome involving intellectual disabilities, sleep disturbance, behavioural problems, and a variety of craniofacial, skeletal, and visceral anomalies. While the majority of SMS cases harbor an ~3.5 Mb common deletion on 17p11.2 that encompasses the retinoic acid induced-1 (RAI1) gene, some patients carry small intragenic deletions or point mutations in RAI1. We present data on two cases of Smith-Magenis syndrome with mutation of RAI1. Both cases are phenotypically consistent with SMS and RAI1 mutation but also have other anomalies not previously reported in SMS, including spontaneous pneumothoraces. These cases also illustrate variability in the SMS phenotype not previously shown for RAI1 mutation cases, including hearing loss, absence of self-abusive behaviours, and mild global delays. Sequencing of RAI1 revealed mutation of the same heptameric C-tract (CCCCCCC) in exon 3 in both cases (c.3103delC one case and and c.3103insC in the other), resulting in frameshift mutations. Of the seven reported frameshift mutations occurring in poly C-tracts in RAI1, four cases (~57%) occur at this heptameric C-tract. Collectively, these results indicate that this heptameric C-tract is a preferential hotspot for single nucleotide insertion/deletions (SNindels) and therefore, should be considered a primary target for analysis in patients suspected for mutations in RAI1. We expect that as more patients are sequenced for mutations in RAI1, the incidence of frameshift mutations in this hotspot will become more evident. © 2010 Truong et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


PubMed | Sacramento Medical Center, University of West of Scotland, Hunter Genetics, Medical Center and 26 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Human mutation | Year: 2016

Mandibulofacial dysostosis with microcephaly (MFDM) is a multiple malformation syndrome comprising microcephaly, craniofacial anomalies, hearing loss, dysmorphic features, and, in some cases, esophageal atresia. Haploinsufficiency of a spliceosomal GTPase, U5-116kDa/EFTUD2, is responsible. Here, we review the molecular basis of MFDM in the 69 individuals described to date, and report mutations in 38 new individuals, bringing the total number of reported individuals to 107 individuals from 94 kindreds. Pathogenic EFTUD2 variants comprise 76 distinct mutations and seven microdeletions. Among point mutations, missense substitutions are infrequent (14 out of 76; 18%) relative to stop-gain (29 out of 76; 38%), and splicing (33 out of 76; 43%) mutations. Where known, mutation origin was de novo in 48 out of 64 individuals (75%), dominantly inherited in 12 out of 64 (19%), and due to proven germline mosaicism in four out of 64 (6%). Highly penetrant clinical features include, microcephaly, first and second arch craniofacial malformations, and hearing loss; esophageal atresia is present in an estimated 27%. Microcephaly is virtually universal in childhood, with some adults exhibiting late catch-up growth and normocephaly at maturity. Occasionally reported anomalies, include vestibular and ossicular malformations, reduced mouth opening, atrophy of cerebral white matter, structural brain malformations, and epibulbar dermoid. All reported EFTUD2 mutations can be found in the EFTUD2 mutation database (http://databases.lovd.nl/shared/genes/EFTUD2).


Huang L.,University of Ottawa | Chardon J.W.,Childrens Hospital of Eastern Ontario | Carter M.T.,Hospital for Sick Children | Friend K.L.,Womens and Childrens Hospital | And 10 more authors.
Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases | Year: 2012

Background: Congenital nonprogressive spinocerebellar ataxia is characterized by early gross motor delay, hypotonia, gait ataxia, mild dysarthria and dysmetria. The clinical presentation remains fairly stable and may be associated with cerebellar atrophy. To date, only a few families with autosomal dominant congenital nonprogressive spinocerebellar ataxia have been reported. Linkage to 3pter was demonstrated in one large Australian family and this locus was designated spinocerebellar ataxia type 29. The objective of this study is to describe an unreported Canadian family with autosomal dominant congenital nonprogressive spinocerebellar ataxia and to identify the underlying genetic causes in this family and the original Australian family. Methods and Results. Exome sequencing was performed for the Australian family, resulting in the identification of a heterozygous mutation in the ITPR1 gene. For the Canadian family, genotyping with microsatellite markers and Sanger sequencing of ITPR1 gene were performed; a heterozygous missense mutation in ITPR1 was identified. Conclusions: ITPR1 encodes inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor, type 1, a ligand-gated ion channel that mediates calcium release from the endoplasmic reticulum. Deletions of ITPR1 are known to cause spinocerebellar ataxia type 15, a distinct and very slowly progressive form of cerebellar ataxia with onset in adulthood. Our study demonstrates for the first time that, in addition to spinocerebellar ataxia type 15, alteration of ITPR1 function can cause a distinct congenital nonprogressive ataxia; highlighting important clinical heterogeneity associated with the ITPR1 gene and a significant role of the ITPR1-related pathway in the development and maintenance of the normal functions of the cerebellum. © 2012 Huang et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


Hallowell N.,University of Melbourne | Hallowell N.,PHG Foundation | Alsop K.,Peter MacCallum Cancer Center | Alsop K.,University of Melbourne | And 8 more authors.
Genetics in Medicine | Year: 2013

Purpose: The generation of clinically significant genetic data during research studies raises a number of ethical issues about the feedback of this information to research participants. Little is known about research participants' experiences of this practice.Methods:This qualitative interview study investigated research participants' (n = 10) or their nominated next of kin's (relatives) (n = 15) experiences of receiving BRCA1 and BRCA2 genetic test information following participation in the Australian Ovarian Cancer Study.Results:Interviewees had mixed responses to receiving feedback. The participants of the Australian Ovarian Cancer Study were more positive about receiving feedback, acknowledging that the genetic information may be useful for their kin. Relatives frequently described themselves as initially distressed at receiving feedback, particularly those who were unaware of the participation of their mothers in the Australian Ovarian Cancer Study. The participants of the Australian Ovarian Cancer Study and their relatives expressed an intention to disseminate the information to relatives following confirmation of the result.Conclusion:We suggest that research participants be encouraged to discuss their participation with family members from the outset. We also outline a number of different strategies for providing feedback to research participants and their next of kin that may lessen the immediate negative impact of receiving feedback of research results. © American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics.


Hopper B.,Genetic Service | Buckman M.,Genetic Service | Edwards M.,Hunter Genetics
Twin Research and Human Genetics | Year: 2011

Telegenetics is a new development in the service delivery of Genetic Services in Australia. This project was designed to establish if it was an acceptable alternative to a face-to-face consultation in the genetic assessment of intellectual disability, including morphological assessment, of the patient. Ten children from two outreach clinics in rural NSW who were referred by their pediatrician were assessed by a single geneticist via telehealth and then seen again face-to-face as a 'gold standard'. Satisfaction surveys were then sent to both the parents and the referring pediatricians. After the face-to-face appointment, the clinical geneticist reviewed the recordings of both the transmitted footage and the high definition footage that was sent separately. There were very few morphological findings missed by the telegenetic assessments. The discrepancies that were noted could decrease in frequency as staff become more familiar with the methods. The parents of the patients reported no problem with the cameras and telehealth. They would have preferred face-to-face appointment but would be happy to have the telehealth appointment if it meant being seen earlier. This pilot study suggests that clinical genetic diagnostic assessment could be performed by telemedicine.


Goel H.,Hunter Genetics | Goel H.,University of Newcastle | Dudding T.,Hunter Genetics | Dudding T.,University of Newcastle
Birth Defects Research Part A - Clinical and Molecular Teratology | Year: 2013

BACKGROUND: The teratogenic effects of antenatal exposure of antithyroid drugs, carbimazole and methimazole have been well reported in the literature. These comprise of typical facial features and a wide variety of malformations such as choanal atresia, tracheo-esophageal anomalies, congenital heart disease and ectodermal defects. However, the longitudinal studies have failed to establish the consistent teratogenicity of these drugs. CASES: we report here two siblings with physical features consistent with carbimazole/methimazole embryopathy. We also describe previously unreported minor dental anomalies in these siblings with antenatal exposure of carbimazole. CONCLUSION: Generally, only a small proportion of prenatally exposed children have the typical manifestations, and the presence in siblings supports a possible hereditary susceptibility to carbimazole/ methimazole embryopathy. This highlights the importance of recognizing this diagnosis before a subsequent pregnancy. Birth Defects Research (Part A) 97:755-758, 2013. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


Rao A.,University of Newcastle | O'Donnell S.,Hunter Genetics | Bain N.,John Hunter Hospital | Meldrum C.,John Hunter Hospital | And 2 more authors.
European Journal of Medical Genetics | Year: 2014

Background: Chromosome 1p31 deletion (OMIM #. 613735) involving the NFIA gene (OMIM 600727) is characterised by variable defects in the formation of the corpus callosum, craniofacial abnormalities and urinary tract defects. A review of current literature suggests only seven cases have been reported, none of which had an isolated NFIA gene defect. Methods: We submit the clinical and molecular features of an 8-year-old female patient with a microdeletion of chromosome 1p31.3 who has developmental delay, metopic synostosis and macroscopic haemoglobinuria. She was investigated with karyotyping, subtelomeric FISH and microarray CGH. Results: Array CGH identified a single 120kb microdeletion of 1p31.3 involving exons 4-9 of the NFIA gene. Her brain MRI showed hypoplasia of the corpus callosum especially in the posterior areas. Karyotype was normal, ruling out structural chromosomal abnormalities. Conclusion: In this study, we confirmed that a microdeletion in the chromosome region 1p31.3 involving the NFIA gene is associated with hypoplasia of the corpus callosum, developmental delay, metopic synostosis and urinary tract abnormalities. Furthermore, we propose a mechanism by which disruptions in the NFIA gene causes craniofacial abnormalities. This report presents the first case of an intragenic deletion within the NFIA gene that is still consistent with classic clinical phenotypes present in previously reported cases of chromosome 1p31.3 related deletion. This finding will help clarify the role of the NFIA gene in the normal formation of parts of the CNS, the craniofacial complex and the urinary tract. © 2014.


Kamien B.,Hunter Genetics | Kamien B.,University of Newcastle | Lionel A.C.,Applied Genomics | Lionel A.C.,University of Toronto | And 5 more authors.
American Journal of Medical Genetics, Part A | Year: 2014

We report on two patients with intragenic deletions of RBFOX1 and one patient with an intragenic duplication of RBFOX1. These patients, by report, all had autism spectrum disorder and/or developmental delay and had strong family histories of these conditions. We initially hypothesized that RBFOX1 was another susceptibility locus for autism spectrum disorder or developmental delay. However, epidemiological evidence examining large numbers of individuals did not support this hypothesis and the data presented here suggests that RBFOX1 intragenic copy number variants are not pathogenic. This contradicts previous reports that examined smaller numbers of patients and controls. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

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