Hungarian Natural History Museum

Budapest, Hungary

Hungarian Natural History Museum

Budapest, Hungary

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Makadi L.,Hungarian Natural History Museum | Caldwell M.W.,University of Alberta
PLoS ONE | Year: 2012

Mosasauroids are conventionally conceived of as gigantic, obligatorily aquatic marine lizards (1000s of specimens from marine deposited rocks) with a cosmopolitan distribution in the Late Cretaceous (90-65 million years ago [mya]) oceans and seas of the world. Here we report on the fossilized remains of numerous individuals (small juveniles to large adults) of a new taxon, Pannoniasaurus inexpectatus gen. et sp. nov. from the Csehbánya Formation, Hungary (Santonian, Upper Cretaceous, 85.3-83.5 mya) that represent the first known mosasauroid that lived in freshwater environments. Previous to this find, only one specimen of a marine mosasauroid, cf. Plioplatecarpus sp., is known from non-marine rocks in Western Canada. Pannoniasaurus inexpectatus gen. et sp. nov. uniquely possesses a plesiomorphic pelvic anatomy, a non-mosasauroid but pontosaur-like tail osteology, possibly limbs like a terrestrial lizard, and a flattened, crocodile-like skull. Cladistic analysis reconstructs P. inexpectatus in a new clade of mosasauroids: (Pannoniasaurus (Tethysaurus (Yaguarasaurus, Russellosaurus))). P. inexpectatus is part of a mixed terrestrial and freshwater faunal assemblage that includes fishes, amphibians turtles, terrestrial lizards, crocodiles, pterosaurs, dinosaurs and birds. © 2012 Makádi et al.

Makranczy G.,Hungarian Natural History Museum
Acta Entomologica Musei Nationalis Pragae | Year: 2013

Previously unrevised types of several species of the genus Thinodromus Kraatz, 1857, Trogophloeus montiumdraconis Scheerpeltz, 1974, Trogophloeus rhodesianus Scheerpeltz, 1974 and Trogophloeus sudanensis Scheerpeltz, 1974, are examined, redescribed and illustrated, all primarily from the southern half of continental Africa. Lectotypes are designated for Trogophloeus tibialis Fauvel, 1907 and Trogophloeus capensis Bernhauer, 1934, the latter is found to be conspecific with Trogophloeus montiumdraconis Scheerpeltz, 1974, syn. nov. The previously unknown female of Thinodromus dasys Gildenkov, 2000 and the male of T. facilis Gildenkov, 2000 are documented, T. kedougouensis Makranczy, 2009, syn. nov., is conditionally placed in synonymy with T. nigerius Gildenkov, 2000. Two species are described as new: T. gildenkovi sp. nov. from Botswana (North- East) and T. meridionalis sp. nov. from South Africa (KwaZulu-Natal prov.). The external morphologies of all these species are illustrated by SEM images, some by colour habitus photographs, and all terminalia and genitalia by line drawings.

Makranczy G.,Hungarian Natural History Museum
Acta Entomologica Musei Nationalis Pragae | Year: 2012

Some nomenclatural issues are resolved in the genus Oxytelus Gravenhorst, 1802, into which the genera Anisopsidius Gravenhorst, 1802, Anisopsis Gravenhorst, 1802, Hoplitodes Gravenhorst, 1802 and Paroxytelopsis Gravenhorst, 1802 were moved by MAKRANCZY (2006). All affected taxa are listed, and the resulting taxonomic issues are discussed. New names are provided for three junior secondary homonyms: Oxytelus hermani nom. nov. for Anisopsis longicornis Cameron, 1928, O. machadoanus nom. nov. for Paranisopsis machadoi Fagel, 1960, and O. renominatus nom. nov. for Paranisopsis confusa Fagel, 1960. Paranisopsis congoensis Fagel, 1960 also became a junior secondary homonym by the above generic synonymy, but it is here tentatively placed in synonymy with Oxytelus guineensis (Bernhauer, 1932). A gender change of the genus name requires adjustment in the species name endings of 10 taxa, and the following new combinations are proposed: Oxytelus angolensis (Fagel, 1960) comb. nov., O. cameroni (Fagel, 1960) comb. nov., O. carinatus (Fauvel, 1904) comb. nov., O. dorylinus (Cameron, 1933) comb. nov., O. eichelbaumi (Bernhauer, 1927) comb. nov., O. flexuosus (Fauvel, 1904) comb. nov., O. guineensis (Bernhauer, 1932) comb. nov., O. incertus (Fagel, 1960) comb. nov., O. leleupi (Fagel, 1960) comb. nov., O. luteus (Fagel, 1960) comb. nov., O. minimus (Bernhauer, 1927) comb. nov., O. motoensis (Fagel, 1960) comb. nov., O. myrmecophilus (Fagel, 1960) comb. nov., O. nigeriensis (Fagel, 1960) comb. nov., O. ornatus (Fagel, 1960) comb. nov., O. quadricollis (Bernhauer, 1932) comb. nov., O. rugulipennis (Bernhauer, 1934) comb. nov., O. sculptiventris (Fagel, 1960) comb. nov., O. strictus (Fagel, 1960) comb. nov., O. tottenhami (Fagel, 1960) comb. nov., O. tuberculatus (Cameron, 1938) comb. nov., and O. uelensis (Bernhauer, 1927) comb. nov. Two records published after FAGEL's (1960) revision were checked and found to be misidentifications. For all species the available illustrations of diagnostic characters are enumerated and their distributions are summarized. New records are provided for 13 species, originating from Cameroon, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Ivory Coast, Kenya, Liberia, Nigeria, Sierra Leone, South Africa, Tanzania, and Zimbabwe.

Within the tribe Pipistrellini, the genus Glischropus is very close to the genus Pipistrellus both in its external morphology and chromosomal features but can be unequivocally distinguished from the latter by the presence of thumb pads and the position of the second incisor. One of the two known species, G. tylopus was thought to have a wide distribution range from Myanmar to the Philippines, while the other, G. javanus is only known from Java. Recently collected Cambodian specimens of Glischropus are distinguished from their congeners by longer forearm and cranial features (the shape of the skull and the upper incisors and certain craniodental measurements) and are consequentially, described here as a new species. Based on thorough examination of the available museum material, it can be concluded that all specimens of G. tylopus previously collected in the Indochinese zoogeographic subregion are in fact representatives of this new species, while G. tylopus in a strict sense is restricted in the mainland to south of the Isthmus of Kra. Copyright © 2011 Magnolia Press.

Porcelloderes impenetrabilis gen. & sp. n. (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Reduviidae: Physoderinae) is described, based on males, females, and larvae from different localities in northeastern Tanzania. The new discovery extends the range of the subfamily (previously known from the Oriental Region and the Pacific, from Madagascar and neighbouring islands, and from Central and South America) to mainland Africa. In contrast to all previously described physoderine species, the new species is apterous, which is probably a result of neoteny; the neotenous aptery and its morphological consequences are discussed. The diagnosis of Physoderinae is extended in order to make it applicable to apterous taxa. In all examined specimens including larvae, the body surface is covered by a firm incrustation of soil, deposited between the long setigerous tubercles. This is the first record in the subfamily Physoderinae of camouflaging by application of material on the body, and the first report of such behaviour in the adult stage in Reduviidae.

Csosz S.,Hungarian Natural History Museum
Myrmecological News | Year: 2012

A significant proportion of taxa was described from a single specimen; however, miscellaneous influences are known to alter a phenotype, raising the question of the validity of taxa that have been reported only once in the history. The purpose of the present study was to highlight one of the possible sources of the high number of once-only taxa; the parasitogenic phenotype. I report observations made using noninvasive X-ray microtomography, which provides direct evidence of the presence of mermithid nematodes in the gaster of certain type specimens, demonstrating that two of the three once-only Myrmica taxa were described on the basis of mermithogenic phenotypes. Microtomographic images show that M. symbiotica (MENOZZI, 1925) was described on a mermithogenic phenotype; so, I propose junior synonymy with M. scabrinodis NYLANDER, 1846. The formerly reported mermithid infestation of M. myrmecophila WASMANN, 1910 holotype, and synonymy with M. sulcinodis NYLANDER, 1846 is confirmed. Though the holotype of Myrmica schenckioides BOER & NOORDIJK, 2005 proved to be uninfected, the malformed features of the type specimen raise the possibility that it is a teratological case.

Makranczy G.,Hungarian Natural History Museum
Acta Zoologica Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae | Year: 2014

A cleanup effort for taxonomy of the Central European species of the genus Thinobius Kiesenwetter, 1844 resulted in a series of previously unpublished synonymies. The new edition of "Die Käfer Mitteleuropas, Band 4" interpreted the names in their correct identities, but the research that lead to these could not be presented there in detail, in part also because of extralimital taxa involved, this is supplied with the present contribution. One species is described as new to science: Thinobius paramicros sp. n. (Algeria: Tamanrasset), for earlier erroneous use of T. algiricus Fauvel. The following new synonymies are proposed: T. angusticeps Fauvel, 1889=Thinobius (Thinophilus) allocerus Eppelsheim, 1893, syn. n.,=Trogophloeus alaskanus Fall, 1926, syn. n., T. major Kraatz, 1857=Thinobius diversicornis Fauvel, 1889, syn. n.,=Thinobius sahlbergi Scheerpeltz, 1959, syn. n., T. micros Fauvel, 1871=Thinobius algiricus Fauvel, 1898, syn. n., T. petzi Bernhauer, 1908=Thinobius tingitanus Peyerimhoff, 1925, syn. n.,=Thinobius (Thiphonilus) anatolicus Smetana, 1967, syn. n. T. procerus Eppelsheim, 1893=Trogophloeus teres Fall, 1926, syn. n., and lectotypes are designated for the following ten nominal species: Thinobius micros Fauvel, 1871, Thinobius diversicornis Fauvel, 1889, Thinobius (Thinophilus) allocerus Eppelsheim, 1893, Thinobius (Thinophilus) procerus Eppelsheim, 1893, Thinobius algiricus Fauvel, 1898, Thinobius silvaticus Bernhauer, 1899, Thinobius bicolor Joy, 1911, Thinobius longicornis Joy, 1913, Thinobius franzi Scheerpeltz, 1947 and Thinobius peezi Scheerpeltz, 1957. A neotype for Thinobius angusticeps Fauvel, 1889 is designated from France (Alpes-Maritimes).

Muranyi D.,Hungarian Natural History Museum
Zootaxa | Year: 2011

Ten taxa of Balkan Isoperla Banks, 1906 are described or redescribed on the basis of SEM studies of the penis, traditional morphological features, and egg structure: I. oxylepis oxylepis (Despax, 1936), I. oxylepis balcanica Raušer, 1962, I. bosnica Aubert, 1964 stat. rev., I. citrina sp. n., I. albanica Aubert, 1964, I. vevcianensis Ikonomov, 1980, I. tripartita tripartita Illies, 1954, I. obliqua Zwick, 1978 stat. n., I. pesici sp. n. and I. autumnalis sp. n. The types and arrangement of scales and sensilla on penial lobes are summarized for West Palaearctic species groups with some-9 preliminary changes in species grouping proposed. An annotated checklist of the Balkanian species is given and the known distribution of endemic taxa are depicted on maps. Isoperla oxylepis balcanica and I. vevcianensis are new for the fauna of Albania, while I. bosnicaand I. grammatica (Poda, 1761) are new for Montenegro and Greece, respectively. Additional significant new country records are provided for Amphinemura triangularis (Ris, 1902), A. quadrangularis Zwick, 1978, Nemoura caligula Zwick,1978 and Leuctra jahorinensis Kaćanski, 1972. Copyright © 2011 Magnolia Press.

Makadi L.,Hungarian Natural History Museum | Makadi L.,Eötvös Loránd University
Cretaceous Research | Year: 2013

In recent years the Late Cretaceous (Santonian) terrestrial vertebrate locality at Iharkút (western Hungary) has yielded well-preserved remains of lizard taxa besides the remains of fishes, amphibians, turtles, crocodiles, pterosaurs and dinosaurs. Previously the polyglyphanodontine lizard Bicuspidon aff. hatzegiensis has been reported from Iharkút. However, recent excavations at this site produced more lacertilian remains including new polyglyphanodontine material, namely a maxilla and two dentaries which suggest the presence of a new genus in the Iharkút fauna. This previously unknown lizard (described here as Distortodon rhomboideus n. g. n. sp.) is distinct from other polyglyphanodontines such as Bicuspidon, Paraglyphanodon, Polyglyphanodon, Dicothodon and Peneteius. It differs from these genera mainly in having the lingual cusp situated more distally compared to the labial one on its bicuspid teeth located in the distal part of the tooth row, thus the crowns having a unique rhomboidal shape in occlusal view. Distortodon rhomboideus further strengthens the dominance of borioteiioid lizards in the Iharkút fauna. The growing presence of borioteiioids in European localities supports previous theories which suggest some paleobiogeographic connections between the western Tethyan archipelago and North America in the Late Cretaceous. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

News Article | February 15, 2017

It was like identifying a criminal from a bit of DNA left at a crime scene. No murder mystery was solved, but researchers have found rare blind cave salamanders in five caves they were not previously thought to live in, thanks to the DNA the animals shed in water. This extends the known range of the vulnerable salamanders and raises hopes for their long-term monitoring and conservation. The olms (Proteus anguinus), or baby dragons as locals call them, spend their entire life in the underground waters of the Dinaric Alps running from Slovenia through Croatia and several other Balkan countries. DNA from bits of skin that they have shed or their feces gets dissolved into their watery habitat and can be washed out of the cave. This is good news for biologists studying cave life, because most of the 7000 or so caves in Croatia are inaccessible to humans. “Before you would only see these elusive animals if they were washed out of their home after heavy raining, or if you would actually go cave-diving,” says Judit Vörös of the Hungarian Natural History Museum who led the study. “But now we can tell just from some cave water if they are there or not.” Her team used a technique known as environmental DNA, or eDNA, to survey the salamanders. “This technique has been known for some time among conservation biologist, but until now it was never used for cave vertebrates,” says Vörös. The team collected water samples from 15 caves across Croatia during the summer of 2014. They filtered 2 liters of water from each site through special paper, and then extracted the eDNA from the paper. They confirmed the presence of the salamander in 10 caves it was already known to inhabit, and detected the species for the first time in five others. Croatian conservationists have now adopted this technique to map the olms’ habitat more precisely, and to learn more about their population genetics. Although both caves and olms are protected in Croatia, Vörös hopes discoveries with eDNA will accelerate the protection of the ground above the caves, since olms are very sensitive to pollution and contaminants can seep into their habitat from above. “This is an excellent use of eDNA, but it’s just a complementary tool,” says Matthew A. Barnes of Texas Tech University. “It’s never going to replace the hard evidence of having a fish, or a blind salamander in your hands.” In dark, cold caves, eDNA can stick around for a long time and could even get carried far from its source, leading researchers to make false assumptions about where the olms are, he says. And little is known about the degradation rate of the olm eDNA, or eDNA in caves at all because that has never been studied in detail. Vörös agrees the method is not perfect. She says it can detect the presence of the animals within a cave system, but not necessarily narrow it down to a particular cave. But she says it is a good way to identify cave systems with the animals, so the team can then examine those areas in more depth with traditional methods – sending divers, for example. Read more: Meet the weird amphibian that rules the underworld; DNA sequencing turns rivers into ecosystem surveillance systems

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