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Csomos G.,Debrecen University | Toth G.,Hungarian Central Statistical Office
Journal of Informetrics | Year: 2016

Global cities are defined, on the one hand, as the major command and control centres of the world economy and, on the other hand, as the most significant sites of the production of innovation. As command and control centres, they are home to the headquarters of the most powerful MNCs of the global economy, while as sites for the production of innovation they are supposed to be the most important sites of corporate research and development (R&D) activities. In this paper, we conduct a bibliometric analysis of the data located in the Scopus and Forbes 2000 databases to reveal the correlation between the characteristics of the above global city definitions. We explore which cities are the major control points of the global corporate R&D (home city approach), and which cities are the most important sites of corporate R&D activities (host city approach). According to the home city approach we assign articles produced by companies to cities where the decision-making headquarters are located (i.e. to cities that control the companies' R&D activities), while according to the host city approach we assign articles to cities where the R&D activities are actually conducted. Given Sassen's global city concept, we expect global cities to be both the leading home cities and host cities.The results show that, in accordance with the global city concept, Tokyo, New York, London and Paris surpass other cities as command points of global corporate R&D (having 42 percent of companies' scientific articles). However, as sites of corporate R&D activities to be conducted, New York and Tokyo form a unique category (having 28 percent of the articles). The gap between San Jose and Boston, and the global cities has consistently narrowed because the formers are the leading centres of the fastest growing innovative industries (e.g. information technology and biotechnology) in the world economy, and important sites of international R&D activities within these industries. The emerging economies are singularly represented by Beijing; however, the position of Chinese capital (i.e. the number of its companies' scientific articles), has been strengthening rapidly. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd.

Toth G.,Hungarian Central Statistical Office | Kincses A.,Hungarian Central Statistical Office | Nagy Z.,University of Miskolc
Norsk Geografisk Tidsskrift | Year: 2014

Many theoretical and practical works aim at describing the spatial structure of Europe, where spatial relations have undergone continuous change. The article gives an overview of models describing the spatial structure of Europe. The models' diversity is highlighted, without any claim to the completeness of the list of models discussed. The authors describe the economic spatial structure of Europe through bidimensional regression analysis based on a gravity model. With the help of the gravity model, they generate a spatial image of the economic spatial structure of Europe. With the images, the appropriateness of the models based on different methodological backgrounds can be justified through comparison with the authors' results. The authors aim to contribute to understanding the European economic spatial structure through a new methodological approach, rather than to create and show a new model that overwrites existing ones. © 2014, © 2014 Norwegian Geographical Society.

Toth G.,Hungarian Central Statistical Office | Kincses A.,Hungarian Central Statistical Office
Geographia Polonica | Year: 2011

The utilisation of accessibility potential models is widespread in geographical studies of transport. A problem emerges, however, when these models are applied in that their interpretations and results may result in some difficulties and ambiguity. In order to eliminate this problem, we have developed a method which is convenient for breaking down the accessibility potentials into four univocal elements. This article analyses the features of these factors and the interrelationships of their spatial development patterns by using the example of the EU NUTS3 regions.

Kincses A.,Hungarian Central Statistical Office | Toth G.,Hungarian Central Statistical Office
Acta Polytechnica Hungarica | Year: 2014

In this paper the authors wish to introduce an application of the gravity model through a concrete example. In their investigation the gravity model was transformed to analyse the impact of accessibility in a way, that not only the size of gravitational forces but their direction can also be measured. Displacements were illustrated by a bi-dimensional regression. The aim of this paper to give a new perspective to the investigation of spatial structure through a Hungarian example. This makes easier the transport planning and land development modeling. In our work accessibility analysis, gravity modeling, bi-dimensional regression calculations and GIS visualization were performed.

Hegedus R.,Corvinus University of Budapest | Pari A.,Hungarian Central Statistical Office | Drjenovszky Z.,Károl Gáspár University of the Reformed Church | Konya H.,Hungarian Academy of Sciences
Twin Research and Human Genetics | Year: 2014

Aiming to perform the first sociological survey of Hungarian twins, our main question was whether being a twin has positive consequences on one's life. Adult twins completed our questionnaire at three Hungarian summer twin festivals, in hospitals during medical twin studies, and on some websites online. Data represent 140 twin pairs (mean age: 38.2 ± 14.6 years). We employed some indices for measuring the resource nature of twinship. Three main types of benefits were distinguished: profit of attraction, as 'material capital'; the easier obtainability of cultural goods when twins take part in it, as 'cultural capital'; and positive aspects of an a priori existing dyadic relation, as 'relational capital'. We were interested in the difference among types of twins regarding advantages. We paid special attention to the five groups of twins derived from gender and zygosity (i.e., monozygotic females, monozygotic males, dizygotic females, dizygotic males, opposite-sex pairs). Our analysis showed that Hungarian twins involved in our research basically enjoy their twinship; during their lives they used and still make use of different benefits given by it. In our twin samples, women had more advantages from being a twin than men. Significant differences could be observed on all indicators between monozygotic and dizygotic twins. © The Author(s) 2014.

Illes S.,Eötvös Loránd University | Kincses A.,Hungarian Central Statistical Office
Hungarian Geographical Bulletin | Year: 2012

The paper presents findings of research on long-term international circular migration. There is scarce information on migratory phenomena interlinked by serial numbers (parity) in literature, so we would like to provide empirical evidences on international circular migrants based on the registered-type of data. The paper draws on a conceptual framework for a sort of definition of international circular migration. We deal with the phenomenon of circulation as one of the systems of the international migration and concentrate on Hungary as a receiving country. The main aim of the paper is to transform the notion of circulation highly theorised to the practice. The paper seeks to gain further insight into the demographic composition and territorial preferences of international circular immigrants in Hungary. Conclusions about circulars indicate the need for future investigations.

PubMed | Babes - Bolyai University, Hungarian Central Statistical Office and Edutus College
Type: Comparative Study | Journal: PloS one | Year: 2016

The average travelling speed increases in a nontrivial manner with the travel distance. This leads to scaling-like relations on quite extended spatial scales, for all mobility modes taken together and also for a given mobility mode in part. We offer a wide range of experimental results, investigating and quantifying this universal effect and its measurable causes. The increasing travelling speed with the travel distance arises from the combined effects of: choosing the most appropriate travelling mode; the structure of the travel networks; the travel times lost in the main hubs, starting or target cities; and the speed limit of roads and vehicles.

PubMed | Hungarian Central Statistical Office and Szent Istvan University
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of dairy science | Year: 2016

The objectives of this study were to explore changes of rumination time and reticuloruminal pH and temperature of dairy cows and heifers (means standard deviation; age = 5.8 1.9; parity = 2.7 1.4; body condition score = 3.2 0.2) with eutocic (EUT, n = 10) and dystocic calving (DYS, n = 8). The recording period lasted from 3 d before calving until 7 d in milk. For the comparison of rumination time and reticuloruminal characteristics between groups, time to return to baseline (the time interval required to return to baseline from the delivery of the calf) and area under the curve (AUC; both for prepartum and postpartum periods) were calculated for each parameter. Rumination time decreased from baseline 28 h before calving both for EUT and DYS cows; after 20 h before calving, it decreased to 32.4 2.3 and 13.2 2.0 min/4 h between 8 and 4 h before delivery in EUT and DYS cows, respectively, and then it decreased below 10 and 5 min during the last 4 h before calving. Until 12 h after delivery, rumination time reached 42.6 2.7 and 51.0 3.1 min/4 h in DYS and EUT dams, respectively; however, AUC and time to return to baseline suggested lower rumination activity in DYS cows than in EUT dams for the 168-h postpartum observational period. Reticuloruminal pH decreased from baseline 56 h before calving both for EUT and DYS cows, but did not differ between groups before delivery. Reticuloruminal pH showed a decreasing tendency and clear diurnal variation after calving for both EUT and DYS cows, with slightly higher AUC values in DYS cows. In DYS cows, reticuloruminal temperature decreased from baseline 32 h before calving by 0.23 0.02C, whereas in EUT cows such a decrease was found only 20 h before delivery (0.48 0.05C). The AUC of reticuloruminal temperature calculated for the prepartum period was greater in EUT cows than in DYS cows. During the first 4 h after calving, reticuloruminal temperature decreased from 39.68 0.09 to 38.96 0.10C and from 39.80 0.06 to 38.81 0.08C in EUT and DYS cows, respectively, and reached baseline levels after 35.4 3.4 and 37.8 4.2 h after calving in EUT and DYS cows, respectively. Based on our results, continuous monitoring of changes in rumination time and reticuloruminal temperature seems to be promising in the early detection of cows with a higher risk of dystocia. Depressed rumination activity of DYS cows after calving highlights the importance of the postpartum monitoring of cows experiencing difficulties at calving. The effect of dystocia on postpartum reticuloruminal pH was not pronounced.

PubMed | Hungarian Central Statistical Office and Szent Istvan University
Type: | Journal: Physiology & behavior | Year: 2016

Peripartal autonomic nervous system function and early maternal behavior were investigated in 79 multiparous Holstein-Friesian cows. Animals were allocated into four groups based on the technology of calving management: 1) unassisted calving in a group pen (UCG; N=19), 2) unassisted calving in an individual pen (UCI; N=21), 3) assisted calving with appropriately timed obstetrical assistance (ACA; N=20), and 4) assisted calving with premature obstetrical assistance (ACP; N=19). Heart rate, the high frequency (HF) component of heart rate variability (HRV) as a measure of vagal activity and the ratio between the low frequency (LF) and HF components (LF/HF ratio) as a parameter of sympathetic nervous system activity were calculated. Heart rate and HRV parameters were presented as areas under the curves (AUC) for the following periods: 1) prepartum period (between 96h before the onset of calving restlessness and the onset of restlessness), 2) parturition (between the onset calving restlessness and delivery), and 3) postpartum period (during a 48-h period after delivery). Pain-related behaviors were recorded during parturition (i.e., the occurrence of vocalization and stretching the neck towards the abdomen) and during a 2-h observation period after calving (i.e., the occurrence of vocalization, stretching the neck towards the abdomen and the duration of standing with an arched back). Early maternal behavior was observed during the first 2h following calving as follows: 1) latency and duration of sniffing calfs head/body, and 2) latency and duration of licking calfs head/body. No difference was found across groups in autonomic function before the onset of calving restlessness. Area under the heart rate curve was higher in ACP cows during parturition (39.62.5beats/minh) compared to UCG, UCI and ACA animals (AUC=13.10.9beats/minh, AUC=22.31.4beats/minh and AUC=25.02.1beats/minh, respectively). Area under the heart rate curve did not differ across the UCG, UCI and ACA groups during the postpartum period (AUC=65.216.7beats/minh, AUC=58.014.2beats/minh and AUC=62.912.1beats/minh, respectively) but it was higher in ACP cows compared to the former groups (AUC=269.136.3beats/minh). During parturition, area under the HF curve reflected a lower vagal tone (AUC=-30.51.6n.u.h) in cows with premature obstetrical assistance than in animals that calved individually without farmer assistance (AUC=2.70.4n.u.h) or with appropriately timed assistance (AUC=3.21.2n.u.h). During parturition, LF/HF ratio showed greater sympathetic activity in ACP cows than in animals from any other group. Area under the HF curve was similar across UCG, UCI and ACA cows (AUC=-232.142.0n.u.h, AUC=-163.435.6n.u.h and AUC=-331.456.2n.u.h, respectively) during the postpartum period and was the lowest in ACP cows (AUC=-1025.644.2n.u.h) reflecting a long-term stress load in the latter group. During parturition, both vocalization and stretching the neck towards the abdomen occurred more often in UCG cows than in cows from any other groups, and the incidence of both behaviors was statistically higher in ACP cows than in UCI and ACA animals. There were no significant differences across groups in these behaviors during the 2-h postpartum observation. UCG cows had a shorter latency and a longer duration of maternal grooming during the first 2h following delivery compared to any other groups. UCI and ACA dams spent more time with licking the calf within the 2-h period after calving and had a shorter latency to sniff and lick the offspring compared to cows that received premature assistance. Group calving is less stressful for cows than calving in an individual pen either with or without obstetrical assistance. Calving in a group or with appropriately timed farmer assistance supports the expression of early maternal behavior and lead to a rapid postpartum recovery of the autonomic nervous system. Premature obstetrical assistance means stress for cows during parturition, leads to a prolonged postpartum recovery of the autonomic nervous system and inhibits the expression of early maternal behavior.

PubMed | Hungarian Central Statistical Office and Szent Istvan University
Type: | Journal: Physiology & behavior | Year: 2016

This investigation was conducted to examine circadian and seasonal rhythms of heart rate and heart rate variability (HRV) by means of hour-by-hour recordings over 24h in a large population of non-lactating Holstein-Friesian pregnant cows [N=56, summer (June-July); N=61, winter (November-December)]. Data were collected during a 5-day period from each animal. Besides parameters of cardiac autonomic function [the high-frequency (HF) component of HRV and the ratio between the low-frequency (LF) and the HF components (LF/HF ratio)], the RR triangular index and Lmax were calculated. A clear circadian profile was observed for every parameter in summer. Heart rate elevated gradually with the course of the day from 7:00 to 17:00 oclock and then slightly decreased from 18:00 to 6:00. Sympathovagal balance shifted towards sympathetic dominance during the daytime (increased LF/HF ratio), whereas parasympathetic activity was predominant during the night (increased HF). Lmax reflected a chaotic behavior of heart rate fluctuations during the afternoon in summer. Decreased values of RR triangular index indicated a sensitive period for cows between 14:00 and 16:00 oclock in summer. During winter, except for the RR triangular (RRtri) index reflecting a high overall variability in R-R intervals between 12:00 and 23:00 oclock, heart rate and HRV showed no periodicity over the 24-h period. The results suggest an impaired cardiac autonomic function during daytime in summer. HF, Lmax and RRtri index showed seasonal differences for both daytime and nighttime. Heart rate was higher in summer than in winter during the daytime, whereas the LF/HF ratio was higher in winter during the nighttime. Circadian and seasonal rhythms of cardiovascular function are presumably related to the differing temperature, and animal activity associated with summer and winter. As all of the investigated parameters are commonly used in bovine HRV research, these findings have practical implications for behavioral, physiological and welfare studies on dairy cattle.

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