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Szabo Z.,Eotvos Lorand University | Szabo Z.,Hungarian Academy of Sciences | Volgyesi P.,Eotvos Lorand University | Nagy H.E.,Eotvos Lorand University | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Environmental Radioactivity

Building materials and their additives contain radioactive isotopes, which can increase both external and internal radioactive exposures of humans. In this study Hungarian natural (adobe) and artificial (brick, concrete, coal slag, coal slag concrete and gas silicate) building materials were examined. We qualified 40 samples based on their radium equivalent, activity concentration, external hazard and internal hazard indices and the determined threshold values of these parameters. Absorbed dose rate and annual effective dose for inhabitants living in buildings made of these building materials were also evaluated. The calculations are based on 226Ra, 232Th and 40K activity concentrations determined by gamma-ray spectrometry. Measured radionuclide concentrations and hence, calculated indices and doses of artificial building materials show a rather disparate distribution compared to adobes. The studied coal slag samples among the artificial building materials have elevated 226Ra content. Natural, i.e. adobe and also brick samples contain higher amount of 40K compared to other artificial building materials. Correlation coefficients among radionuclide concentrations are consistent with the values in the literature and connected to the natural geochemical behavior of U, Th and K elements. Seven samples (coal slag and coal slag concrete) exceed any of the threshold values of the calculated hazard indices, however only three of them are considered to be risky to use according to the fact that the building material was used in bulk amount or in restricted usage. It is shown, that using different indices can lead to different conclusions; hence we recommend considering more of the indices at the same time when building materials are studied. Additionally, adding two times their statistical uncertainties to their values before comparing to thresholds should be considered for providing a more conservative qualification. We have defined radon hazard portion to point to the limitations of the internal hazard considerations based on only measured 226Ra activity concentrations without direct radon measurements. Our data are compared to those obtained in other countries and they provide a good basis to expand the database of radioactivity of building materials and gives information about the safety and situation of the building material industry in this central region of Europe. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Vegh J.,Hungarian Academy of Sciences | Gajdos F.,Hungarian Academy of Sciences | Horvath C.,Hungarian Academy of Sciences | Matisz A.,Hungarian Academy of Sciences | Nyisztor D.,Hungarian Atomic Energy Authority
2013 3rd International Conference on Advancements in Nuclear Instrumentation, Measurement Methods and Their Applications, ANIMMA 2013

The paper describes the design and implementation of an on-line operation monitoring and accident response support system to be used at the CERTA emergency response centre of Hungarian Atomic Energy Authority (HAEA). The monitored facility is the Budapest Research Reactor (BRR), which is a tank-type thermal reactor having 10 MW thermal power. The basic reason for the development of the on-line safety information system is to extend the emergency response capability of the CERTA crisis centre to include emergencies related to BRR, as well. CERTA is operated by HAEA at its Budapest headquarters and the centre already has an on-line system for monitoring the state of the four units of Paks NPP, Hungary. The system is called CERTA VITA and it is able to monitor the four VVER-440/V213 units during their normal operation, and during emergencies (including severe accidents). Ensuring appropriate emergency response capabilities, as well as improving the presently available systems and tools was one of the important recommendations resulting from the analyses following the severe accident at Fukushima. This task is valid not only for the operators of the nuclear facilities but also for the nuclear safety authorities, therefore HAEA decided to launch a project - together with the Centre for Energy Research, the operator of BRR - to establish an on-line information system similar to the CERTA VITA used for monitoring the four units of the Paks NPP. It is believed that by the introduction of this new on-line system the accident response capabilities of HAEA will be further enhanced and the BRR emergencies will be handled at the same professional level as potential emergencies at Paks NPP. © 2013 IEEE. Source

Bareith A.,NUBIKI Nuclear Safety Research Institute Ltd. | Macsuga G.,Hungarian Atomic Energy Authority
PSAM 2014 - Probabilistic Safety Assessment and Management

In response to a request by the Hungarian Atomic Energy Authority (HAEA), PSA analysts of NUBIKI Nuclear Safety Research Institute developed a proposal for making advancement in using PSA information within a risk-informed regulatory decision-making framework and outlined a work plan to perform the tasks envisioned in the proposal. Key PSA application areas were identified with an overview of the associated analysis methods. Improvement was proposed in thirteen PSA application areas in total. Risk-informed safety management and risk-informed regulation were included in the proposal as an overall framework for all the other applications. It was suggested that HAEA ensure the implementation of all the PSA applications, characterized in the study, in nuclear safety regulation between 2013 and 2020. Further, it was found necessary to investigate in detail and evaluate what modifications would be necessary in safety regulation in order to underpin risk-informed safety management and risk-informed regulation. PSA applications were prioritized in support of scheduling the developmental tasks. Also, the role of risk-informed decision-making in different life cycle stages of a nuclear power plant was characterized. Finally, it was proposed to make some distinction between PSA applications to operating and newly built nuclear power plants, respectively. Source

Karsa Z.,NUBIKI Nuclear Safety Research Institute | Kiss T.,Paks Nuclear Power Plant | Macsuga G.,Hungarian Atomic Energy Authority
11th International Probabilistic Safety Assessment and Management Conference and the Annual European Safety and Reliability Conference 2012, PSAM11 ESREL 2012

This paper discusses the most important steps of the risk monitor development process carried out for the Paks NPP in Hungary. Early activities including domestic development of a limited scope risk monitoring tool as well as recent developments on the basis of RiskSpectrum RiskWatcher software are presented. The first results gained by the use of the newly developed Risk Monitor are presented. Areas of potential and planned uses of the Risk Monitor are summarized. Finally, some open issues are highlighted that can be of general interest to risk monitor developers and users. Source

Macsuga G.,Hungarian Atomic Energy Authority
11th International Probabilistic Safety Assessment and Management Conference and the Annual European Safety and Reliability Conference 2012, PSAM11 ESREL 2012

The nuclear safety authorities of the member countries of the Co-operation Forum for VVER Regulators recognise the importance of risk-informed regulatory approach. Accordingly the members of the Working Group on Regulatory Use of PSA Methods of the VVER Forum have elaborated the Risk-informed Regulation Indicator System (RIRIS). The intention of this unique indicator system is to provide an easy to use instrument for identifying the status of risk-informed regulation and safety management and to assist the national regulatory authorities to set their objectives for further development of the risk informed regulation and safety management. Based on the good international regulatory practices, a set of indicators has been compiled to characterise all important aspects of the three prerequisite areas: 1) Regulation; 2) PSA models and practices; and 3) PSA expertise. The indicators have been grouped according to these prerequisites. The prime objectives of the RIRIS are to provide a method for self-assessment in identifying the status of the risk-informed regulation and safety management; to define the prime areas for a risk-informed regulatory practice; and to prioritize areas for future development. The paper provides a detailed introduction of the different indicators, scoring criteria that are used in RIRIS, and shows some examples on general values for VVER Forum average indicators for the years since 2005 till 2011. Source

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