Hungarian Atomic Energy Authority

Budapest, Hungary

Hungarian Atomic Energy Authority

Budapest, Hungary
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Vajda N.,RadAnal Ltd | Stefanka Z.S.,Hungarian Atomic Energy Authority | Szeles E.,Hungarian Academy of Sciences | Molnar Z.S.,RadAnal Ltd
Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry | Year: 2011

A combined radioanalytical method for determination of 93Zr and 237Np (as well as other actinoids) in radioactive wastes has been developed. Analytes were co-precipitated on iron(II)-hydroxide, separated and purified on UTEVA columns, and detected by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. According to Zr and Np, 65 and 75% yields were achieved, respectively. © 2010 Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest, Hungary.

Safar J.,Institute of Isotope and Surface Chemistry of Hungary | Safar J.,Hungarian Atomic Energy Authority | Lakosi L.,Institute of Isotope and Surface Chemistry of Hungary
Radiation Physics and Chemistry | Year: 2014

In the view of the evidences arising from our experimental and theoretical studies, the long-standing picture of a two-humped excitation function for photoexcitation of isomers cannot be confirmed. Whereas the first maximum (at the photoneutron threshold) of the cross section of nuclear photon scattering can be attributed to inelastic (compound) scattering, the second large peak at about giant dipole resonance is mostly due to the elastic (direct) process. A second large peak or increase reported to appear in isomer production has been shown to be practically vanishing. On realizing such a situation, calculated estimates have been given for saturated integral cross section values for isomer activation, based on photoabsorption cross sections taken from the usual Lorentzian parametrization up to the photoneutron threshold. Results compare reasonably well to available experimental data acquired by gamma-ray spectrometry in a large set of stable nuclides having long-lived isomeric states. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Szabo Z.,Eötvös Loránd University | Szabo Z.,Hungarian Academy of Sciences | Volgyesi P.,Eötvös Loránd University | Nagy H.E.,Eötvös Loránd University | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Environmental Radioactivity | Year: 2013

Building materials and their additives contain radioactive isotopes, which can increase both external and internal radioactive exposures of humans. In this study Hungarian natural (adobe) and artificial (brick, concrete, coal slag, coal slag concrete and gas silicate) building materials were examined. We qualified 40 samples based on their radium equivalent, activity concentration, external hazard and internal hazard indices and the determined threshold values of these parameters. Absorbed dose rate and annual effective dose for inhabitants living in buildings made of these building materials were also evaluated. The calculations are based on 226Ra, 232Th and 40K activity concentrations determined by gamma-ray spectrometry. Measured radionuclide concentrations and hence, calculated indices and doses of artificial building materials show a rather disparate distribution compared to adobes. The studied coal slag samples among the artificial building materials have elevated 226Ra content. Natural, i.e. adobe and also brick samples contain higher amount of 40K compared to other artificial building materials. Correlation coefficients among radionuclide concentrations are consistent with the values in the literature and connected to the natural geochemical behavior of U, Th and K elements. Seven samples (coal slag and coal slag concrete) exceed any of the threshold values of the calculated hazard indices, however only three of them are considered to be risky to use according to the fact that the building material was used in bulk amount or in restricted usage. It is shown, that using different indices can lead to different conclusions; hence we recommend considering more of the indices at the same time when building materials are studied. Additionally, adding two times their statistical uncertainties to their values before comparing to thresholds should be considered for providing a more conservative qualification. We have defined radon hazard portion to point to the limitations of the internal hazard considerations based on only measured 226Ra activity concentrations without direct radon measurements. Our data are compared to those obtained in other countries and they provide a good basis to expand the database of radioactivity of building materials and gives information about the safety and situation of the building material industry in this central region of Europe. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

Koblinger L.,Hungarian Atomic Energy Authority
EPJ Web of Conferences | Year: 2014

In the first part of the paper, Wigner's humane attitude is overviewed based on the author's personal impressions and on selected quotations from Wigner and his contemporaries. The second part briefly summarizes Wigner's contribution to the development of nuclear science and technology. © Owned by the authors, published by EDP Sciences.

Vegh J.,Institute for Energy and Transport of the Netherlands | Gajdos F.,Hungarian Academy of Sciences | Horvath C.,Hungarian Academy of Sciences | Matisz A.,Hungarian Academy of Sciences | Nyisztor D.,Hungarian Atomic Energy Authority
IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science | Year: 2015

The paper describes the design and implementation of an on-line operation monitoring and accident response support system to be used at the emergency response center of Hungarian Atomic Energy Authority (HAEA). The system is called CERTA VITA and it is able to monitor the four VVER-440 units of the Hungarian Paks nuclear power plant (NPP) during their normal operation and during emergencies (including severe accidents). As a result from the analyses following the severe accident at Fukushima the HAEA decided to extend the CERTA VITA system on the Budapest Research Reactor (BRR), which is a tank type research reactor with 10 MW thermal power. The extension of the present system was realized in co-operation with the Centre for Energy Research, the operator of BRR. It is believed that by the introduction of this new on-line system the accident response capabilities of HAEA will be further enhanced and the BRR emergencies will be handled at the same professional level as potential emergencies at Paks NPP. © 2015 IEEE.

Bareith A.,NUBIKI Nuclear Safety Research Institute Ltd. | Macsuga G.,Hungarian Atomic Energy Authority
PSAM 2014 - Probabilistic Safety Assessment and Management | Year: 2014

In response to a request by the Hungarian Atomic Energy Authority (HAEA), PSA analysts of NUBIKI Nuclear Safety Research Institute developed a proposal for making advancement in using PSA information within a risk-informed regulatory decision-making framework and outlined a work plan to perform the tasks envisioned in the proposal. Key PSA application areas were identified with an overview of the associated analysis methods. Improvement was proposed in thirteen PSA application areas in total. Risk-informed safety management and risk-informed regulation were included in the proposal as an overall framework for all the other applications. It was suggested that HAEA ensure the implementation of all the PSA applications, characterized in the study, in nuclear safety regulation between 2013 and 2020. Further, it was found necessary to investigate in detail and evaluate what modifications would be necessary in safety regulation in order to underpin risk-informed safety management and risk-informed regulation. PSA applications were prioritized in support of scheduling the developmental tasks. Also, the role of risk-informed decision-making in different life cycle stages of a nuclear power plant was characterized. Finally, it was proposed to make some distinction between PSA applications to operating and newly built nuclear power plants, respectively.

Macsuga G.,Hungarian Atomic Energy Authority
11th International Probabilistic Safety Assessment and Management Conference and the Annual European Safety and Reliability Conference 2012, PSAM11 ESREL 2012 | Year: 2012

The nuclear safety authorities of the member countries of the Co-operation Forum for VVER Regulators recognise the importance of risk-informed regulatory approach. Accordingly the members of the Working Group on Regulatory Use of PSA Methods of the VVER Forum have elaborated the Risk-informed Regulation Indicator System (RIRIS). The intention of this unique indicator system is to provide an easy to use instrument for identifying the status of risk-informed regulation and safety management and to assist the national regulatory authorities to set their objectives for further development of the risk informed regulation and safety management. Based on the good international regulatory practices, a set of indicators has been compiled to characterise all important aspects of the three prerequisite areas: 1) Regulation; 2) PSA models and practices; and 3) PSA expertise. The indicators have been grouped according to these prerequisites. The prime objectives of the RIRIS are to provide a method for self-assessment in identifying the status of the risk-informed regulation and safety management; to define the prime areas for a risk-informed regulatory practice; and to prioritize areas for future development. The paper provides a detailed introduction of the different indicators, scoring criteria that are used in RIRIS, and shows some examples on general values for VVER Forum average indicators for the years since 2005 till 2011.

Karsa Z.,NUBIKI Nuclear Safety Research Institute | Kiss T.,Paks Nuclear Power Plant | Macsuga G.,Hungarian Atomic Energy Authority
11th International Probabilistic Safety Assessment and Management Conference and the Annual European Safety and Reliability Conference 2012, PSAM11 ESREL 2012 | Year: 2012

This paper discusses the most important steps of the risk monitor development process carried out for the Paks NPP in Hungary. Early activities including domestic development of a limited scope risk monitoring tool as well as recent developments on the basis of RiskSpectrum RiskWatcher software are presented. The first results gained by the use of the newly developed Risk Monitor are presented. Areas of potential and planned uses of the Risk Monitor are summarized. Finally, some open issues are highlighted that can be of general interest to risk monitor developers and users.

Bencs L.,Hungarian Academy of Sciences | Gyorgy K.,Hungarian Academy of Sciences | Kardos M.,Hungarian Academy of Sciences | Osan J.,Hungarian Academy of Sciences | And 8 more authors.
Analytica Chimica Acta | Year: 2012

Solid sampling (SS) graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS) and solution-based (SB) methods of GFAAS, flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS), inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) were elaborated and/or optimized for the determination of Cr, Fe and Mn trace elements used as dopants in lithium niobate optical crystals.The calibration of the SS-GFAAS analysis was possible with the application of the three-point-estimation standard addition method, while the SB methods were mostly calibrated against matrix-matched and/or acidic standards. Spectral and non-spectral interferences were studied in SB-GFAAS after digestion of the samples. The SS-GFAAS method required the use of less sensitive spectral lines of the analytes and a higher internal furnace gas (Ar) flow rate to decrease the sensitivity for crystal samples of higher (doped) analyte content.The chemical forms of the matrix produced at various stages of the graphite furnace heating cycle, dispensed either as a solid sample or a solution (after digestion), were studied by means of the X-ray near-edge absorption structure (XANES). These results revealed that the solid matrix vaporized/deposited in the graphite furnace is mostly present in the metallic form, while the dry residue from the solution form mostly vaporized/deposited as the oxide of niobium. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

Szeles E.,Hungarian Academy of Sciences | Varga Z.,European Commission | Stefanka Z.,Hungarian Atomic Energy Authority
Journal of Analytical Atomic Spectrometry | Year: 2010

International nuclear safeguards have been applied for over 30 years to control nuclear activities. Following the recon of undeclared nuclear activities in Iraq in 1991, strengthening of the safeguards system became necessary (1995). From 1996 the detection of undeclared nuclear activities using sensitive and precise analysis of swipe samples became one of the most important parts of IAEA inspections. The aim of this study was the development of a fast and easy sample preparation and analysis method for the bulk uranium and plutonium analysis of swipe samples. For the sample preparation low power microwave-assisted digestion followed by extraction chromatography using TRU® resin was applied. The concentration of analytes of interest and their isotopic composition were determined by inductively coupled plasma sector field mass spectrometry (ICP-SFMS). The analytical performance of the method is in good agreement with the requirements (accuracy, precision, repeatability) of the International Atomic Energy Agency-Network for Analytical Laboratories (IAEA-NWAL) and can be applied for routine analysis. The low detection limits achieved enable the determination of the isotope ratios and isotope concentrations of U and Pu (234U, 235U, 236U, 238U and 239Pu, 240Pu, 241Pu) present in ultratrace concentration levels in swipe samples. The method was tested with real swipe samples collected at Hungarian radioactive source producing facilities. © 2010 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

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