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Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam

Hirst J.E.,University of Sydney | Tran T.S.,University of Adelaide | Do M.A.T.,Hung Vuong Hospital | Morris J.M.,University of Sydney | Jeffery H.E.,University of Sydney
PLoS Medicine | Year: 2012

Background: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is increasing and is a risk for type 2 diabetes. Evidence supporting screening comes mostly from high-income countries. We aimed to determine prevalence and outcomes in urban Viet Nam. We compared the proposed International Association of the Diabetes and Pregnancy Study Groups (IADPSG) criterion, requiring one positive value on the 75-g glucose tolerance test, to the 2010 American Diabetes Association (ADA) criterion, requiring two positive values. Methods and Findings: We conducted a prospective cohort study in Ho Chi Minh City, Viet Nam. Study participants were 2,772 women undergoing routine prenatal care who underwent a 75-g glucose tolerance test and interview around 28 (range 24-32) wk. GDM diagnosed by the ADA criterion was treated by local protocol. Women with GDM by the IADPSG criterion but not the ADA criterion were termed "borderline" and received standard care. 2,702 women (97.5% of cohort) were followed until discharge after delivery. GDM was diagnosed in 164 participants (6.1%) by the ADA criterion, 550 (20.3%) by the IADPSG criterion. Mean body mass index was 20.45 kg/m2 in women with out GDM, 21.10 in women with borderline GDM, and 21.81 in women with GDM, p<0.001. Women with GDM and borderline GDM were more likely to deliver preterm, with adjusted odds ratios (aORs) of 1.49 (95% CI 1.16-1.91) and 1.52 (1.03-2.24), respectively. They were more likely to have clinical neonatal hypoglycaemia, aORs of 4.94 (3.41-7.14) and 3.34 (1.41-7.89), respectively. For large for gestational age, the aORs were 1.16 (0.93-1.45) and 1.31 (0.96-1.79), respectively. There was no significant difference in large for gestational age, death, severe birth trauma, or maternal morbidity between the groups. Women with GDM underwent more labour inductions, aOR 1.51 (1.08-2.11). Conclusions: Choice of criterion greatly affects GDM prevalence in Viet Nam. Women with GDM by the IADPSG criterion were at risk of preterm delivery and neonatal hypoglycaemia, although this criterion resulted in 20% of pregnant women being positive for GDM. The ability to cope with such a large number of cases and prevent associated adverse outcomes needs to be demonstrated before recommending widespread screening. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary. © 2012 Hirst et al.

Ramoo S.,Village Medical Practice | Trinh T.A.,Hung Vuong Hospital | Hirst J.E.,University of Sydney | Jeffery H.E.,University of Sydney
Breastfeeding Medicine | Year: 2014

Background: The benefits of breastfeeding to both maternal and infant health are vast and widely known. The aim of this study was to elicit the rates of exclusive breastfeeding, early initiation of breastfeeding, and colostrum feeding and to determine the attitudes, knowledge, and influences around breastfeeding in postpartum Vietnamese women.Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted at the Hung Vuong Hospital in Ho Chi Minh City, Viet Nam, between December 2010 and January 2011. Postpartum women were randomly selected and interviewed within 48 hours of delivery.Results: Of the 223 women interviewed, 86% had initiated breastfeeding at the time of the interview. Modes of feeding included exclusive breastfeeding (7%), mixed feeding (79%), which included breastmilk and formula or water, and exclusive formula feeding (14%). Of the breastfeeding women, 14% had initiated breastfeeding within 60 minutes of delivery, 92% had initiated within 24 hours, and 8% had initiated after 24 hours of delivery. Of women who had initiated breastfeeding, 37% had discarded their colostrum. Factors that positively influenced breastfeeding were knowledge that breastfeeding is good for the infant, advice obtained from "public information," and the influence of health professionals and family on the decision to breastfeed. Factors that influenced the decision not to initiate breastfeeding included pain or fever after cesarean section and perceived lack of breastmilk after delivery.Conclusions: The rate of exclusive breastfeeding at Hung Vuong Hospital in this study was lower than the national average of 17%. Specific interventions targeting this must be formulated to increase these rates. © 2014, Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.

Tran T.S.,University of Adelaide | Hirst J.E.,University of Sydney | Do M.A.T.,Hung Vuong Hospital | Morris J.M.,University of Sydney | Jeffery H.E.,University of Sydney
Diabetes Care | Year: 2013

OBJECTIVEdWe aimed to compare the discriminative power of prognostic models for early prediction of women at risk for the development of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) using four currently recommended diagnostic criteria based on the 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT).We also described the potential effect of application of the models into clinical practice. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODSdA prospective cross-sectional study of 2,772 pregnant women was conducted at a referral maternity center in Vietnam. GDM was determined by the American Diabetes Association (ADA), International Association of the Diabetes and Pregnancy Study Groups (IADPSG), Australasian Diabetes in Pregnancy Society (ADIPS), and World Health Organization (WHO) criteria. Prognostic models were developed using the Bayesian model averaging approach, and discriminative power was assessed by area under the curve. Different thresholds of predicted risk of developing GDM were applied to describe the clinical impact of the diagnostic criteria. RESULTSdThe magnitude of GDM varied substantially by the diagnostic criteria: 5.9% (ADA), 20.4%(IADPSG), 20.8%(ADIPS), and 24.3%(WHO). The ADAprognosticmodel, consisting of age and BMI at booking, had the best discriminative power (area under the curve of 0.71) and the most favorable cost-effective ratio if implemented in clinical practice. Selective screening of women for GDM using the ADA model with a risk threshold of 3% gave 93% sensitivity for identification of women with GDM with a 27% reduction in the number of OGTTs required. CONCLUSIONSdA simple prognostic model using age and BMI at booking could be used for selective screening of GDM in Vietnam and in other low-and middle-income settings. Copyright © 2013 by the American Diabetes Association.

Trinh A.T.,Hung Vuong Hospital | Khambalia A.,Kolling Institute of Medical Research | Ampt A.,Kolling Institute of Medical Research | Morris J.M.,Royal North Shore Hospital | Roberts C.L.,Kolling Institute of Medical Research
Bulletin of the World Health Organization | Year: 2013

Objective To describe the use of episiotomy among Vietnamese-born women in Australia, including risk factors for, and pregnancy outcomes associated with, episiotomy. Methods This population-based, retrospective cohort study included data on 598 305 singleton, term (i.e. ≥ 37 weeks' gestation) and vertex-presenting vaginal births between 2001 and 2010. Data were obtained from linked, validated, population-level birth and hospitalization data sets. Contingency tables and multivariate analysis were used to compare risk factors and pregnancy outcomes in women who did or did not have an episiotomy. Findings The episiotomy rate in 12 208 Vietnamese-born women was 29.9%, compared with 15.1% in Australian-born women. Among Vietnamese-born women, those who had an episiotomy were significantly more likely than those who did not to be primiparous, give birth in a private hospital, have induced labour or undergo instrumental delivery. In these women, having an episiotomy was associated with postpartum haemorrhage (adjusted odds ratio, aOR: 1.26; 95% confidence interval, CI: 1.08-1.46) and postnatal hospitalization for more than 4 days (aOR: 1.14; 95% CI: 1.00-1.29). Among multiparous women only, episiotomy was positively associated with a third- or fourth-degree perineal tear (aOR: 2.00; 95% CI: 1.31-3.06); in contrast, among primiparous women the association was negative (aOR: 0.47; 95% CI: 0.37-0.60). Conclusion Episiotomy was performed in far fewer Vietnamese-born women giving birth in Australia than in Viet Nam, where more than 85% undergo the procedure, and was not associated with adverse outcomes. A lower episiotomy rate should be achievable in Viet Nam.

Tran C.B.N.,University of Oxford | Nguyen H.T.,Hung Vuong Hospital | Phan H.T.T.,District 8 Hospital | van Tran N.,Hospital for Tropical Diseases | And 4 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2011

Enterovirus 71 (EV71)-associated hand, foot and mouth disease has emerged as a serious public health problem in South East Asia over the last decade. To better understand the prevalence of EV71 infection, we determined EV71 seroprevalence and seroincidence amongst healthy infants and children in Ho Chi Minh City, Viet Nam. In a cohort of 200 newborns, 55% of cord blood samples contained EV71 neutralizing antibodies and these decayed to undetectable levels by 6 months of age in 98% of infants. The EV71 neutralizing antibody seroconversion rate was 5.6% in the first year and 14% in the second year of life. In children 5-15 yrs of age, seroprevalence of EV71 neutralizing antibodies was 84% and in cord blood it was 55%. Taken together, these data suggest EV71 force of infection is high and highlights the need for more research into its epidemiology and pathogenesis in high disease burden countries. © 2011 Tran et al.

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