Hunan Soil and Fertilizer Institute

Changsha, China

Hunan Soil and Fertilizer Institute

Changsha, China

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Chen Z.-D.,China Agricultural University | Dikgwatlhe S.B.,China Agricultural University | Dikgwatlhe S.B.,Research Services Plant Production Systems Division | Xue J.-F.,China Agricultural University | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Cleaner Production | Year: 2014

Scientific regulation of carbon (C) flows under conservation tillage is of great significance for mitigating C emission to the atmosphere and increasing C sequestration potential in soils. The objective of this study was to assess tillage impacts on C cycle from a situ field experiment and identify potential tillage practices for C-smart technology in paddy soils of the Southern China. A field experiment was conducted during 2005-2011, including conventional tillage without residue retention (CT), conventional tillage with residue retention (CTS), rotary tillage with residue retention (RTS), and no-till with residue retention (NTS). We computed SOC concentrations, SOC stocks and C emissions from farm inputs with time, and results in values representing a change in net carbon flux under different tillage systems in a double rice (Oryza sativa L.) cropping system. The annual increase rates of SOC stocks were 452.6, 523.3, 1340.8, and 2385.4 kg ha-1 yr-1 from 2007 to 2011 under CT, CTS, RTS, and NTS, respectively. The annual C emissions under CT, CTS, RTS, and NTS were 1182.5, 1182.5, 1152.5, and 1139.2 kg C-eq ha-1 yr-1, respectively. Among the treatments, NTS treatment had the lowest net C flux with -1246.2 kg C-eq ha-1 yr-1. Taking CT as the baseline, the relative net C flux under RTS and NTS were -918.2 and -1976.1 kg C-eq ha-1 yr-1, respectively. This suggests that adoption of conservation tillage would be beneficial in the reduction of GHG emission and could be a good option for C-smart agriculture in double rice cropping regions. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Chen Z.-D.,China Agricultural University | Dikgwatlhe S.B.,China Agricultural University | Dikgwatlhe S.B.,Research Services | Xue J.-F.,China Agricultural University | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Cleaner Production | Year: 2015

Scientific regulation of carbon (C) flows under conservation tillage is of great significance for mitigating C emission to the atmosphere and increasing C sequestration potential in soils. The objective of this study was to assess tillage impacts on C cycle from a situ field experiment and identify potential tillage practices for C-smart technology in paddy soils of the Southern China. A field experiment was conducted during 2005-2011, including conventional tillage without residue retention (CT), conventional tillage with residue retention (CTS), rotary tillage with residue retention (RTS), and no-till with residue retention (NTS). We computed SOC concentrations, SOC stocks and C emissions from farm inputs with time, and results in values representing a change in net carbon flux under different tillage systems in a double rice (Oryza sativa L.) cropping system. The annual increase rates of SOC stocks were 452.6, 523.3, 1340.8, and 2385.4 kg ha-1 yr-1 from 2007 to 2011 under CT, CTS, RTS, and NTS, respectively. The annual C emissions under CT, CTS, RTS, and NTS were 1182.5, 1182.5, 1152.5, and 1139.2 kg C-eq ha-1 yr-1, respectively. Among the treatments, NTS treatment had the lowest net C flux with -1246.2 kg C-eq ha-1 yr-1. Taking CT as the baseline, the relative net C flux under RTS and NTS were -918.2 and -1976.1 kg C-eq ha-1 yr-1, respectively. This suggests that adoption of conservation tillage would be beneficial in the reduction of GHG emission and could be a good option for C-smart agriculture in double rice cropping regions. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.


Xue J.-F.,China Agricultural University | Liu S.-L.,China Agricultural University | Chen Z.-D.,China Agricultural University | Chen F.,China Agricultural University | And 3 more authors.
International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment | Year: 2014

Purpose: Adoption of the carbon (C)-friendly and cleaner technology is an effective solution to offset some of the anthropogenic emissions. Conservation tillage is widely considered as an important sustainable technology and for the development of conservation agriculture (CA). Thus, the objective of this study was to assess the C sustainability of different tillage systems in a double rice (Oryza sativa L.) cropping system in southern China. Methods: The experiment was established with no-till (NT), rotary tillage (RT), and conventional tillage (CT) treatments since 2005. Emission of greenhouse gasses (GHG), C footprint (CF), and ecosystem service through C sequestration in different tillage systems were compared. Result and discussion: Emission of GHG from agricultural inputs (Mg CO2-eq ha-1 year-1) ranged from 1.81 to 1.97 for the early rice, 1.82 to 1.98 for the late rice, and 3.63 to 3.95 for the whole growing season, respectively. The CF (kg CO2-eq kg -1 of rice year-1) in the whole growing seasons were 1.27, 1.85, and 1.40 [excluding soil organic carbon (SOC) storage] and 0.54, 1.20, and 0.72 (including SOC storage) for NT, RT, and CT, respectively. The value of ecosystem services on C sequestration for the whole growing seasons ranged from ¥3,353 to 4,948 ha-1 year-1 and followed the order of NT > CT > RT. The C sustainability under NT was better than that under RT for the late, but reversed for the early rice. However, NT system had better C sustainability for the whole cropping system compared with CT. Conclusions: Therefore, NT is a preferred technology to reduce GHG emissions, increase ecosystem service functions of C sequestration, and improve C sustainability in a double rice cropping region of Southern China. © 2014 Springer-Verlag.


Hai-Ming T.,Hunan Soil and Fertilizer Institute | Xiao-Ping X.,Hunan Soil and Fertilizer Institute | Wen-Guang T.,Hunan Soil and Fertilizer Institute | Ye-Chun L.,Guizhou Academy of Tobacco Science | And 2 more authors.
PloS one | Year: 2014

Residue management in cropping systems is useful to improve soil quality. However, the studies on the effects of residue management on the enzyme activities and microbial community of soils in South China are few. Therefore, the effects of incorporating winter cover crop residue with a double-cropping rice (Oryza sativa L.) system on soil enzyme activities and microbial community in Southern China fields were studied. The experiment has conducted at the experimental station of the Institute of Soil and Fertilizer Research, Hunan Academy of Agricultural Science, China since winter 2004. Four winter cropping systems were used: rice-rice-ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum L.) (R-R-Ry), rice-rice-Chinese milk vetch (Astragalus sinicus L.) (R-R-Mv), rice-rice-rape (Brassica napus L.) (R-R-Ra) and rice-rice with winter fallow (R-R-Fa). The result indicated that the enzyme activities in the R-R-Ry, R-R-Mv and R-R-Ra systems were significantly higher (P<0.05) than in the R-R-Fa system during the early and late rice season. The β-glucosidase activities reached peak values at the tillering stage after residue application, and alkaline phosphatase activities reached peak values at the booting stage after residue application, respectively, the activities of β-glucosidase and alkaline phosphatase gradually decreased after this. Arylsulfatase activities reached peak values at the maturity stage. Arylamidase activities reached peak values at the maturity stage. The numbers of aerobic bacteria, actinomycete and fungus of residue treatments were significantly higher (P<0.05) than that the R-R-Ra system. However, the number of anaerobic bacteria under the R-R-Ry and R-R-Mv systems was significantly lower (P<0.05) than that under the R-R-Fa system during early rice and late rice growth stage. Thus, incorporation of winter cover crops into rotations may increase enzyme activities and microbial community in soil and therefore improve soil quality.


PubMed | Guizhou Academy of Tobacco Science and Hunan Soil and Fertilizer Institute
Type: Journal Article | Journal: PloS one | Year: 2014

Residue management in cropping systems is useful to improve soil quality. However, the studies on the effects of residue management on the enzyme activities and microbial community of soils in South China are few. Therefore, the effects of incorporating winter cover crop residue with a double-cropping rice (Oryza sativa L.) system on soil enzyme activities and microbial community in Southern China fields were studied. The experiment has conducted at the experimental station of the Institute of Soil and Fertilizer Research, Hunan Academy of Agricultural Science, China since winter 2004. Four winter cropping systems were used: rice-rice-ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum L.) (R-R-Ry), rice-rice-Chinese milk vetch (Astragalus sinicus L.) (R-R-Mv), rice-rice-rape (Brassica napus L.) (R-R-Ra) and rice-rice with winter fallow (R-R-Fa). The result indicated that the enzyme activities in the R-R-Ry, R-R-Mv and R-R-Ra systems were significantly higher (P<0.05) than in the R-R-Fa system during the early and late rice season. The -glucosidase activities reached peak values at the tillering stage after residue application, and alkaline phosphatase activities reached peak values at the booting stage after residue application, respectively, the activities of -glucosidase and alkaline phosphatase gradually decreased after this. Arylsulfatase activities reached peak values at the maturity stage. Arylamidase activities reached peak values at the maturity stage. The numbers of aerobic bacteria, actinomycete and fungus of residue treatments were significantly higher (P<0.05) than that the R-R-Ra system. However, the number of anaerobic bacteria under the R-R-Ry and R-R-Mv systems was significantly lower (P<0.05) than that under the R-R-Fa system during early rice and late rice growth stage. Thus, incorporation of winter cover crops into rotations may increase enzyme activities and microbial community in soil and therefore improve soil quality.


Zhu Q.H.,CAS Institute of Subtropical Agriculture | Huang D.Y.,CAS Institute of Subtropical Agriculture | Liu S.L.,CAS Institute of Subtropical Agriculture | Luo Z.C.,Hunan Soil and Fertilizer Institute | And 5 more authors.
Plant, Soil and Environment | Year: 2013

The tolerance, accumulation and subcellular distribution characteristics of cadmium (Cd) in ramie (Boehmeria nivea L. Gaud.) were investigated using a 2-year field experiment. The results indicated that ramie has a certain extent of tolerance to soil Cd (≤ 20 mg/kg) contamination with no significant decrease in shoot biomass and fibre yield relative to control conditions. Although ramie did not hyperaccumulate Cd, it accumulated considerable amount of Cd in the aboveground parts (approximately 0.19 to 1.09 kg/ha annually). The Cd contents retained in ramie tissues were found in order of roots > stems > leaves. Further, regarding the subcellular distribution of Cd in ramie tissues, 80% of the total Cd was bound to the cell walls of the roots and stems, whereas in leaves the proportion of Cd stored in the cell wall fraction was around 60% and a lesser amount of Cd was stored in the soluble fraction (24.1-25.5%). Our collective results indicated that ramie adapts to Cd stress via the store of a large amount of Cd in cell walls, and suggested potential usefulness of ramie in the phytoremediation of Cd-contaminated farmlands.


Zhu Q.-H.,CAS Institute of Subtropical Agriculture | Huang D.-Y.,CAS Institute of Subtropical Agriculture | Liu S.-L.,CAS Institute of Subtropical Agriculture | Zhou B.,CAS Institute of Subtropical Agriculture | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Soils and Sediments | Year: 2012

Purpose: Little is known of the effect of sepiolite on the transformation of Cd in anthropogenically contaminated paddy soil under different moisture conditions; therefore, we studied the effects of sepiolite and flooding on the extractability and fractionation of Cd in paddy soils. Materials and methods: The dynamics of soil Eh, pH, DTPA-extractable Cd, and different Cd soil fractions were studied in two typical paddy soils from south China that were spiked with 10 mg kg-1 Cd following amendment with sepiolite at 5 and 10 g kg-1 soil during a 30-day incubation period at 25°C, with either no flooding or continuous flooding conditions. Results and discussion: The addition of sepiolite at two rates of 5 and 10 g kg-1 soil resulted in an average reduction in soil Eh of 76 and 93 mV, increase in soil pH of 1.2 and 2.3 pH units, and decrease in DTPA-extractable Cd in soils of 1.43 and 2.53 mg kg-1 under continuous flooding conditions, respectively. Sepiolite addition resulted in a significant decrease in the exchangeable Cd in the soils, and a significant increase, in the carbonate-bound and Fe/Mn oxide-bound Cd in the soils under both moisture conditions. Cadmium was also immobilized by flooding and by interactions between sepiolite application and flooding; these effects were greater in sandy paddy soil than in clay paddy soil. Conclusions: The immobilization of Cd in typical paddy soils was related mainly to changes in Eh and pH caused by the addition of sepiolite and flooding. Sepiolite can be used in the remediation of Cd-contaminated paddy soils, especially in sandy paddy soils, and flooding enhances the stabilization of Cd in paddy soils by sepiolite. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.


Gao J.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Cao W.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Li D.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Xu M.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | And 3 more authors.
Shengtai Xuebao/ Acta Ecologica Sinica | Year: 2011

Rotation cropping systems have important significance to soil fertility, productivity and ecological function in paddy field. We analyzed the long-term data from a field experiment started in 1982 to investigate the effects of rotation cropping of double-rice with various green manure on the dynamics of rice yield and the total and labile soil organic matter in Red Soil Experimental Station CAAS. Four rotation cropping systems were selected by three replicates, which were rotation of double rice with Chinese milk vetch (Astragalus sinicus L.), rape (Astragalus sinicus L.), ryegrass (lolium multiflorum) and winter fallow. Results showed that, during the duration from 1982 to 2008, the averaged annual rice yield were 10.8 t·hm -2·a -1, 10.2 t·hm -2·a -1 and 10.0 t·hm -2·a -1 for the rotation cropping systems with Chinese milk vetch (Astragalus sinicus L.), rape (Astragalus sinicus L.) and ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum) respectively. Compared with double-rice and winter-fallow cropping, rice yield was increased significantly by 27.2%, 20.5%, and 18.1% under the rotation cropping with Chinese milk vetch (Astragalus sinicus L.), rape (Astragalus sinicus L.) and ryegrass (lolium multiflorum) respectively. There was no significant difference among these rotation cropping systems with three kinds of green manure during the early period from 1982 to 1993, while the rice yield under the rotation with cultivating Chinese milk vetch was significantly higher than that under the other two kinds green manure rotations at the latter period from 1994 to 2008. Sustainability index of grain yield (SYI) was a reliable parameter on evaluate the productivity of sustainable cropping systems. Cultivating Chinese milk vetch could fix atmospheric nitrogen and improve soil fertility. The Sustainability index of grain yield (SYI) and potential of yield increased with cultivating Chinese milk vetch was the highest. Soil organic matter showed an increasing trend under the rotation cropping of double rice and green manure. The rotation of double rice with Chinese milk vetch had the highest annually increasing rate (0.31g/kg) of soil organic matter, while the rate was 0.28g/kg and 0.26g/kg for the rotation cropping with ryegrass and rape, respectively. The labile soil organic matter under the rotation with Chinese milk vetch was the highest of all the treatments. Total organic carbon, total nitrogen, soil microbial biomass carbon and nitrogen under the rotation with three kinds of green manure were significantly higher than that under the winter-fallow cropping systems. Compared with rape, ryegrass has strong fibrous root system which content high organic matter and crude protein. More carbon and nitrogen were cumulated in the soil under the rotation of double rice with Chinese milk vetch and ryegrass than that under the other two cropping systems. Additionally, the two rotation cropping systems of double-rice with ryegrass and Chinese milk vetch increased the microbial biomass carbon content and the ratio of microbial biomass carbon to total organic carbon (C mic-to-C org) significantly compared with the cropping of double-rice and rape or fallow. In conclusion, rotation cropping of double rice with green manure had significant effects on enhancing rice yield and promoting soil organic matter quantity and quality. Rice cropping with Chinese milk rotation vetch was recommendable for rice productivity and soil fertility.


PubMed | Hunan Soil and Fertilizer Institute
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Environmental science and pollution research international | Year: 2015

Residue management in cropping systems is useful to improve soil quality. However, the studies on the effects of residue management on methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) emission from paddy field in southern China are few. Therefore, the emissions of CH4 and N2O were investigated in double cropping rice (Oryza sativa L.) systems with different winter covering crops using the static chamber-gas chromatography technique to assess the effects of different covering crops on the emissions of greenhouse gases. The experiment was established in 2004 in Hunan Province, China. Three winter cropping systems were used: rice-rice-rape (Brassica napus L.) (T1), rice-rice-potato with straw mulching (Solanum tuberosum L.) (T2), and rice-rice with winter fallow (CK). A randomized block design was adopted in plots, with three replications. The results showed that T2 plots had the largest CH4 emissions during the early and late rice growing season with 12.506 and 32.991 g m(-2), respectively. When compared to CK, total N2O emissions in the early rice growth period and the emissions of the gas increased by 0.013 g m(-2) in T1 and 0.045 g m(-2) in T2, respectively. Similar results were obtained in the late rice growth period; the total N2O emissions increased by 0.027 g m(-2) in T1 and 0.084 g m(-2) in T2, respectively. The mean value of global warming potentials (GWPs) of CH4 and N2O emissions over 100 years was in the order of T2>T1>CK, which indicated CK and T1 was significantly lower than T2 (P<0.05). This suggests that adoption of T1 would be beneficial for greenhouse gas emission mitigation and could be a good option cropping pattern in double rice cropped regions.


PubMed | Hunan Soil and Fertilizer Institute
Type: Journal Article | Journal: PloS one | Year: 2014

Residue management in cropping systems is believed to improve soil quality. However, the effects of residue management on methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from paddy field in Southern China have not been well researched. The emissions of CH4 and N2O were investigated in double cropping rice (Oryza sativa L.) systems with straw returning of different winter cover crops by using the static chamber-gas chromatography technique. A randomized block experiment with three replications was established in 2004 in Hunan Province, China, including rice-rice-ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum L.) (Ry-R-R), rice-rice-Chinese milk vetch (Astragalus sinicus L.) (Mv-R-R) and rice-rice with winter fallow (Fa-R-R). The results showed that straw returning of winter crops significantly increased the CH4 emission during both rice growing seasons when compared with Fa-R-R. Ry-R-R plots had the largest CH4 emissions during the early rice growing season with 14.235 and 15.906 g m(-2) in 2012 and 2013, respectively, when Ry-R-R plots had the largest CH4 emission during the later rice growing season with 35.673 and 38.606 g m(-2) in 2012 and 2013, respectively. The Ry-R-R and Mv-R-R also had larger N2O emissions than Fa-R-R in both rice seasons. When compared to Fa-R-R, total N2O emissions in the early rice growing season were increased by 0.05 g m(-2) in Ry-R-R and 0.063 g m(-2) in Mv-R-R in 2012, and by 0.058 g m(-2) in Ry-R-R and 0.068 g m(-2) in Mv-R-R in 2013, respectively. Similar result were obtained in the late rice growing season, and the total N2O emissions were increased by 0.104 g m(-2) in Ry-R-R and 0.073 g m(-2) in Mv-R-R in 2012, and by 0.108 g m(-2) in Ry-R-R and 0.076 g m(-2) in Mv-R-R in 2013, respectively. The global warming potentials (GWPs) from paddy fields were ranked as Ry-R-R>Mv-R-R>Fa-R-R. As a result, straw returning of winter cover crops has significant effects on increase of CH4 and N2O emission from paddy field in double cropping rice system.

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