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Xiao D.,Hunan Agricultural University | Wang Y.,Twins Group Co. | Liu G.,CAS Institute of Subtropical Agriculture | He J.,Hunan Agricultural University | And 8 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2014

The aim of this study was to investigate whether supplementation with chitosan (COS) could reduce diarrhea and to explore how COS alleviates intestinal inflammation in weaned pigs. Thirty pigs (DurocxLandracexYorkshire, initial BW of 5.65±0.27) weaned at age 21 d were challenged with enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli during a preliminary trial period, and then divided into three treatment groups. Pigs in individual pens were fed a corn-soybean meal diet, that contained either 0 (control), 50 mg/kg chlortetracycline, or 300 mg/kg COS for 21 days. The post-weaning diarrhea frequency, calprotectin levels and TLR4 protein expression were decreased (P<0.05) in both the COS and chlortetracycline groups compared with control. Simultaneously, supplemental COS and chlortetracycline had no effect on the mRNA expression of TNF-α in the jejunal mucosa, or on the concentrations of IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α in serum. However, COS supplementation improved (P<0.05) the mRNA expression of IL-1β and IL-6 in the jejunal mucosa. The results indicate that supplementation with COS at 300 mg/kg was effective for alleviating intestinal inflammation and enhancing the cell-mediated immune response. As feed additives, chitosan and chlortetracycline may influence different mechanisms for alleviating inflammation in piglets. © 2014 Xiao et al. Source


Xiao D.,Hunan Agricultural University | Xiao D.,CAS Institute of Subtropical Agriculture | Tang Z.,Southwest University | Yin Y.,CAS Institute of Subtropical Agriculture | And 4 more authors.
International Immunopharmacology | Year: 2013

This study was conducted to investigate how chitosan (COS) affects intestinal mucosal barrier function and to further explain mechanisms of COS on growth performance. Thirty piglets, weaned at 21 days of age, were challenged with enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli during preliminary trial period. Three groups of Piglets in individual pens were fed a corn-soybean meal diet containing no addition, 50 mg/kg chlortetracycline, or 300 mg/kg COS for 21 days. Jejunal morphology and histology were analyzed under light microscope. The concentrations of occludin proteins were determined by western blot. Immunohistochemistry assays were used to determine secretory immunoglobulin (sIgA) level. Real-time PCR was used to detect Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and Claudin-1 in jejunal mucosa. Feeding COS or chlortetracycline reduced (P < 0.05) feed conversion ratio. Villus length, villus length/crypt depth, and goblet cells, were increased (P < 0.05), but villus width and crypt depth were decreased (P < 0.05) in both COS and chlortetracycline groups. Intraepithelial lymphocytes were higher (P < 0.05) in the COS group than both chlortetracycline and control groups. Occludin protein expression was increased (P < 0.01) in the COS group, but was decreased (P < 0.05) in the chlortetracycline group. Expression of sIgA protein was higher (P < 0.05) in the COS group than both control and chlortetracycline groups, however TLR4 mRNA expression was decreased (P < 0.05) in both COS and chlortetracycline groups. There was no difference in expression of claudin-1 among the three groups. In conclusion, chitosan and the antibiotic have similar effects in promoting piglet growth and reducing intestinal inflammation, but different effects on intestinal mucosal barrier function. This indicates that chitosan can replace chlortetracycline as a feed additive for piglets. © 2013 Published by Elsevier B.V. Source


Sun Y.-L.,Jilin University | Ping Z.-G.,China Agricultural University | Li C.-J.,Jilin University | Sun Y.-F.,Jilin University | And 6 more authors.
Reproduction in Domestic Animals | Year: 2011

Contents: Follicular fluid (FF) includes various biologically active proteins which can affect follicular growth and maturation. Certain proteins could reflect the physiological and pathological status of follicles. The aim of the present study was to explore the key proteins associated with pathogenesis of follicular cysts, some of which may be candidate biomarkers for the condition. We analysed the proteomes of FF from small, medium, large and cystic follicles by two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) combined with mass spectrometry (MS). The protein components in FF were found to be significantly different among groups; about 300 proteins spots in each group were examined, and 32 differentially expressed proteins were identified from different groups. To further reveal the source of identified proteins, transcripts encoding two of these, transferrin and RBP-4, were detected in granulosa cells (GCs) by RT-PCR, as well as the proteins were detected in 24h culture media of GCs by ELISA. High levels of RBP-4 were examined in FF of cystic follicles by 2-DE analysis, which were significantly different to those in large follicles (p<0.05). In conclusion, the study enriches our understanding of the proteins of FF; RBP-4 and transferrin originate from passive transfer and follicular synthesized secretion, and RBP-4 might be a candidate biomarker for porcine follicular cysts. Combined with histological studies, these results further suggest that changes of the type and quantity of proteins in FF might be attributed to an abnormal metabolism of follicular cells and structure of follicular wall in cystic follicles. Our findings will contribute to further insight into the pathogenesis of follicular cysts. © 2011 Blackwell Verlag GmbH. Source


Zhang W.,Jilin University | Yi K.,Hunan Institute of Animal and Veterinary Science | Chen C.,Jilin University | Hou X.,Jilin University | Zhou X.,Jilin University
Animal Reproduction Science | Year: 2012

Although cryopreserved boar semen has been available since 1975, a major breakthrough in commercial application has not yet occurred due to the high susceptibility of boar spermatozoa to damage during cryopreservation and the complicated process required for deep freezing. In recent years, the application of antioxidants during the cryopreservation of boar semen has been the subject of considerable research aimed at improving the quality of post-thaw semen. Centrifugation is necessary before using cryopreservation protocols for freezing boar spermatozoa. Studies of the effect of different centrifugation regimens on boar sperm recovery, yield and cryosurvival have made significant contributions. Therefore this review elucidates results of recent applications of various antioxidants and centrifugation regimens used in efforts to improve cryopreservation of boar spermatozoa. This review is intended to enhance understanding of the roles of these antioxidants and centrifugation regimens with respect to mechanisms that increase resistance to cryodamage of boar spermatozoa. In addition, the discussion addresses the need for developing an objective evaluation of effectiveness and estimating the prospect of application of new techniques for the cryopreservation of boar semen and its use in artificial insemination. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. Source


Li C.,Jilin University | Sun Y.,Jilin University | Sun Y.,Jilin Agricultural University | Yi K.,Hunan Institute of Animal and Veterinary Science | And 3 more authors.
Theriogenology | Year: 2010

The objective was to confirm the presence of nerve growth factor (NGF) and its specific receptor, TrkA, in ejaculated bovine sperm, and to investigate the effects of NGF on specific aspects of bovine sperm function. Both TrkA transcripts and immunoreactivity typical of the translated protein were detected by RT-PCR and western blotting. However, only the NGF protein was detected in bovine sperm using western blotting, and there was no RT-PCR evidence for NGF transcripts in sperm. Using an immunofluorescent technique, NGF-immunoreactivity was localized to the sperm head and tail, whereas that of TrkA was detected in the acrosomal cap, nucleus, and tail regions When sperm were treated with exogenous NGF, both leptin secretion and sperm viability were increased (P < 0.05); moreover, the percentages of late apoptotic and dead sperm were increased (P < 0.05). However, NGF had no effects on insulin secretion, mitochondrial activity, intracellular calcium levels, or the acrosome reaction of sperm (P > 0.05). In conclusion, the presence of TrkA transcript, as well as NGF and TrkA immunoreactivity were confirmed in bovine sperm. Furthermore, exogenous NGF had significant effects on the secretion of leptin, cell viability, and sperm apoptosis. This study provided strong evidence that NGF/TrkA may have roles in regulation of sperm physiology and perhaps male fertility and infertility. © 2010 Elsevier Inc. Source

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