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Yin K.,CAS Research Center for Eco Environmental Sciences | Wang R.,CAS Research Center for Eco Environmental Sciences | Yao L.,CAS Research Center for Eco Environmental Sciences | Liang J.,Hunan Environmental Monitoring Center
Shengtai Xuebao/ Acta Ecologica Sinica | Year: 2011

Up to 2010, there were 71 cities and 5 municipalities awarded the title of National Model City for Environmental Protection, other 124 cities are actively engaged in pursuing this title. "Model City" obeys principles of sustainable development strategy, and the evaluating methods for urban sustainable development had been the focus of the worldwide researches. Ecological footprint method, economic welfare index of sustainable development, human development index and other methods were applied to assess the level of citieś sustainability. In recent years, eco-efficiency was introduced in assessing the level of citieśsustainability. City is a social-economic-natural complex ecological system with multiple input and output of material, energy and information. In this study, data envelopment analysis method was applied, appropriate input and output indicators were selected, the differences of eco-efficiency between the existing model cities were analyzed, and the input and output redundancy was indentified, which provided theoretical basis for ratings and promoting of Model Cities for Environmental Protection. 12 indictors were selected out, including 5 input indicators, 6 undesired output indicators, 1 desired output. Main results are: (1) Compared three different analyzing models, undesired output were characterized with negative weights (Model-I); take the undesired output as input (Model-II); use desired output minus the input, then divided by the undesired output (Model-III). Scores and numbers of the DEA efficient units were not changed, and the scores of the non-DEA efficient unit followed an upward trend. (2) Twenty cities were DEA efficient (which scores are 1 according to data envelopment analysis) according to the three models, accounting for 46. 5% of the overall evaluation set. Comparing the model cities around the Bohai economic circle, the Pearl River Delta economic circle and the coastal economic zone of Fujian to the cities around the Yangtze River Delta economic circle, the eco-efficiency of the former were better. (3) For all non-DEA efficient cities (which scores below 1 according to data envelopment analysis), we could reduce 1876 million tons of wastewater emissions, 4. 178 million tons of chemical oxygen demand, 0.558 million tons of industrial sulfur dioxide emissions, 0. 258 million tons of industrial soot, 0. 5976 million tons of industrial dust, 67. 604 million tons of industrial solid waste, the overall energy consumption can reduce 1007.676 million tons of stand coal, the total water supply reduce 2904. 913 million cubic meters, the construction land could reduce 3604.19 square kilometers, total fixed asset investment would reduce 829. 538 billion yuan, but the GDP could increase 1844.719 billion yuan. (4) The city which has better economic performance, the eco-efficiency may not be high, such as Shanghai, Tianjin, Guangzhou and Nanjing. Shenzhen, Ningbo, Qingdao become the typical city in which social, economic and natural are coordinated development. In this study, we only considered the time-section data of 2009, could not analysis the dynamic process of the city, so the trends can't be pointed out. Moreover, the full array polygon evaluation method could better reflect the sustainable development level of the city, from the view of time, space, volume, structure and sequence. In addition, the future research will focus on the driving mechanism of the eco-efficiency. Source

Yu P.,Central South University | Zhang L.,Central South University | Chen H.,Central South University | Luo Y.,Hunan Environmental Monitoring Center | Si S.,Central South University
Chinese Journal of Sensors and Actuators | Year: 2010

A novel conductive polymer electrode (CPE) in-situ coated with bismuth film was proposed to detect trace heavy metal ions, copper, lead, cadmium and zinc by anodic stripping voltammetry. The differences in performance between CPE and screen-printed carbon electrode(SPE) were compared. Additionally, the influences of preconcentration time and several supporting electrolytes on the determination of heavy metal ions with CPE were investigated. Experimental results showed that the peak potentials were 0. 05 V for Cu2+, - 0. 55 V for Pb2+, -0. 80 V for Cd2+ , - 1. 10 V for Zn 2+ at bismuth-modified CPE. The peak currents changed linearly with the coricentration of Cu2+, Pb2+, Cd2+, Zn 2+ and the detection limits were 0.5 μg/L, 1 μg/L, 1 μg/L and 0.5 μg/L, respectively. The CPE used in this study was more sensitive and stable than SPE for the determination of trace heavy metal ions, and supplied a good foundation for the development of disposable electrochemical sensors. Source

Yin K.,CAS Research Center for Eco Environmental Sciences | Wang R.,CAS Research Center for Eco Environmental Sciences | Zhou C.,CAS Research Center for Eco Environmental Sciences | Liang J.,Hunan Environmental Monitoring Center
Shengtai Xuebao/ Acta Ecologica Sinica | Year: 2012

Industrial ecology, eco-efficiency, eco-design, X multiple of revolution are theoretical basis for sustainable development. Among these, eco-efficiency is the most popular method for quantitative analysis. The concept of eco-efficiency was firstly put forward in the academic by Schaltegger and Sturn in the year 1990. Being promoted greatly by the World Business Council for Sustainable, eco-efficiency has obtained great attention in sustainable development research. Claude Fussler firstly introduced the concept of eco-efficiency to China in 1995. There are many achievements in the researches of eco-efficiency in china in recent ten years. Different accounting methods of eco-efficiency in different researching fields were developed, especially in the researches on circular economy in different scales of urban, regional and national level. In this paper, eco-efficiency counting methods and applications in different scales have been sum up based on the review of relevant literature in recent ten years. The accounting methods of eco-efficiency were divided into three categories: (1) Economic/environmental single ratio method. Sometimes, the total production of the product or service, total sales and the total net sales were used to stand for the economic dimension. Resources consumptions, carbon dioxide emissions or other environmental impacts were used to present the environmental dimension. (2) Indicator system method was consisted by indicators which independent from each other but stand for each sections of the research subject. The indicator system method is suit for analyzing the complex systems which contains social, economic and natural subsystems. (3) Modeling method. Data envelopment analysis method is the main method, and other productivity models have been used for eco-efficiency analysis. Then, eco-efficiency could be applied on different scales, such as plant, industry, regional and etc. According to the summarize of current researches, we found that: (1) Researches on eco-efficiency have shifted from simple evaluation to driving mechanism exploring shown in international literatures, but domestic researches still remain in the simple evaluation level. (2) Modeling and methods of eco-efficiency exist in the area of accounting, finance and productivity have been brought to modify and correct the economic/ecological ratio model, while domestic researches focus on building a multi-index system of eco-efficiency, and apply the productivity models for assessment. (3) In the area of eco-efficiency application, international researches showed interests on industrial system and its production system, and applied eco-efficiency method to eco-design and product development. Comparatively, domestic researches mainly focus on the assessment of ecological parks, urban and regional areas, but very few researches in the scale of industrial scale. (4) International researches of eco-efficiency were associated with global ecological issues, such as global warming, biodiversity, food security, while domestic researches focused on analyzing pollutants and wastes. (5) Current studies didn't explain the roots of ecological and environmental crisis, and the social dimensions were usually not taking into consideration. Finally, the article point out, domestic government should spread the notion of eco-efficiency, propel the researches and applications both in micro and large scale; Improve the eco-efficiency accounting methodology with theories and methods of economy, management, accounting and other disciplines; Use the full array polygon graphical methods to reflect the different aspects of the social-economic-natural complex ecological system. Source

Yin K.,CAS Research Center for Eco Environmental Sciences | Wang R.,CAS Research Center for Eco Environmental Sciences | An Q.,Hefei University of Technology | Yao L.,CAS Research Center for Eco Environmental Sciences | Liang J.,Hunan Environmental Monitoring Center
Ecological Indicators | Year: 2014

Urbanisation in China has resulted in an increased consumption of resources, energy and materials and led to negative environmental effects. All of these factors have motivated the widely discussed topic of urban sustainable development in China. The core of this discussion is how to quantitatively measure urban sustainable development. This research uses eco-efficiency as an indicator to measure urban sustainable development. A data envelopment analysis model was applied to eco-efficiency analysis using environmental pollution as an undesirable output, and a super-efficiency model was modified for ranking. Using real datum for 30 Chinese provincial capital cities, an empirical study was employed to describe their eco-efficiency. The results show that: almost half of the cities are fairly eco-efficient. The inefficient cities are mainly located in the southwest and northwest of China, which are the undeveloped economic zones, while some of the eco-efficient cities have more environmental pollution and consume more land, energy and water. When ranking cities using a modified model, it was found that Haikou, Fuzhou and Beijing were the top three most eco-efficient cities, while Yinchuan, Lanzhou, Guiyang were the bottom three. When exploring the driving force of eco-efficiency, this paper proposes changing the GDP-oriented growth model and appraisal system, continuously transforming and upgrading the industrial structure and stopping the migration of heavy industry from east to west, south to north and city to countryside. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

Li T.-T.,Hunan University | Liu Y.-G.,Hunan University | Peng Q.-Q.,Hunan University | Peng Q.-Q.,Hunan Environmental Monitoring Center | And 5 more authors.
Chemical Engineering Journal | Year: 2013

The adsorption of Pb(II) ions from aqueous solution with ethylenediamine-modified yeast biomass coated with magnetic chitosan microparticles (EYMC) was studied in batch adsorption system. The adsorption of Pb(II) ions increased with the rising pH and a higher adsorption capacity was achieved at the pH 4.0-6.0. The experiment data was well matched by Langmuir model and Freundlich model, while Langmuir model showed the best description. The maximum adsorption capacities obtained by Langmuir model were 121.26, 127.37 and 134.90mgg-1 at 20, 30 and 40°C, respectively. Kinetic studies indicated that the pseudo-second-order model was appropriate to describe the adsorption process and film diffusion maybe governed the rate of the adsorption. Thermodynamic studies revealed that a spontaneous and endothermic adsorption process. The adsorbents, EYMC can be well recovered by 0.1M EDTA. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. Source

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