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Huang B.,CAS Institute of Subtropical Agriculture | Huang B.,University of Chinese Academy of Sciences | Xiao D.,Hunan Agricultural University | Xiao D.,Hunan Collaborative Innovation Center for Utilization of Botanical Functional Ingredients | And 13 more authors.
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry | Year: 2016

Chitosan oligosaccharide (COS) is a degradation product of chitosan with antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, and antibacterial effects. This study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary COS on the intestinal inflammatory response and the calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) and nuclear transcription factor kappa B (NF-κB) signaling pathways that may be involved using a lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-challenged piglet model. A total of 40 weaned piglets were used in a 2 × 2 factorial design; the main factors were dietary treatment (basal or 300 μg/kg COS) and inflammatory challenge (LPS or saline). On the morning of days 14 and 21 after the initiation of treatment, the piglets were injected intraperitoneally with Escherichia coli LPS at 60 and 80 g/kg body weight or the same amount of sterilized saline, respectively. Blood and small intestine samples were collected on day 14 or 21, respectively. The results showed that piglets challenged with LPS have a significant decrease in average daily gain and gain:feed and histopathological injury in the jejunum and ileum, whereas dietary supplementation with COS significantly alleviated intestinal injury induced by LPS. Piglets fed the COS diet had lower serum concentrations of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin (IL) 6, and IL-8 as well as lower intestinal abundances of pro-inflammatory cytokine mRNA but higher anti-inflammatory cytokine mRNA compared with piglets fed the basal diet among LPS-challenged piglets (p < 0.05). Dietary COS increased intestinal CaSR and PLCβ2 protein expressions in both saline- and LPS-treated piglets, but decreased p-NF-κB p65, IKKα/β, and IκB protein expressions in LPS-challenged piglets (p < 0.05). These findings indicate that COS has the potential to reduce the intestinal inflammatory response, which is concomitant with the activation of CaSR and the inhibition of NF-κB signaling pathways under an inflammatory stimulus. © 2015 American Chemical Society.

Li G.,CAS Institute of Subtropical Agriculture | Li G.,University of Chinese Academy of Sciences | Li J.,CAS Institute of Subtropical Agriculture | Tan B.,CAS Institute of Subtropical Agriculture | And 9 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2015

The sodium-dependent neutral amino acid transporter 2 (SNAT2), which has dual transport/receptor functions, is well documented in eukaryotes and some mammalian systems, but has not yet been verified in piglets. The objective of this study was to investigate the characteristics and regulation of SNAT2 in the small intestine of piglets. The 1,521-bp porcine full cDNA sequence of SNAT2 (KC769999) from the small intestine of piglets was cloned. The open reading frame of cDNA encodes 506 deduced amino acid residues with a calculated molecular mass of 56.08 kDa and an isoelectric point (pI) of 7.16. Sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis revealed that SNAT2 is highly evolutionarily conserved in mammals. SNAT2 mRNA can be detected in the duodenum, jejunum and ileum by real-time quantitative PCR. During the suckling period from days 1 to 21, the duodenum had the highest abundance of SNAT2 mRNA among the three segments of the small intestine. There was a significant decrease in the expression of SNAT2 mRNA in the duodenal and jejunal mucosa and in the expression of SNAT2 protein in the jejunal and ileal mucosa on day 1 after weaning (P < 0.05). Studies with enterocytes in vitro showed that amino acid starvation and supplementation with glutamate, arginine or leucine enhanced, while supplementation with glutamine reduced, SNAT2 mRNA expression (P < 0.05). These results regarding the characteristics and regulation of SNAT2 should help to provide some information to further clarify its roles in the absorption of amino acids and signal transduction in the porcine small intestine. © 2015 Li et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Hussain T.,CAS Institute of Subtropical Agriculture | Hussain T.,University of Chinese Academy of Sciences | Tan B.,CAS Institute of Subtropical Agriculture | Tan B.,Hunan Collaborative Innovation Center for Utilization of Botanical Functional Ingredients | And 6 more authors.
Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine | Year: 2016

Eucommia ulmoides (EU) (also known as "Du Zhong" in Chinese language) is a plant containing various kinds of chemical constituents such as lignans, iridoids, phenolics, steroids, flavonoids, and other compounds. These constituents of EU possess various medicinal properties and have been used in Chinese Traditional Medicine (TCM) as a folk drink and functional food for several thousand years. EU has several pharmacological properties such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antiallergic, antimicrobial, anticancer, antiaging, cardioprotective, and neuroprotective properties. Hence, it has been widely used solely or in combination with other compounds to treat cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases, sexual dysfunction, cancer, metabolic syndrome, and neurological diseases. This review paper summarizes the various active ingredients contained in EU and their health-promoting properties, thus serving as a reference material for the application of EU. © 2016 Tarique Hussain et al.

Xiao H.,CAS Institute of Subtropical Agriculture | Xiao H.,University of Chinese Academy of Sciences | Wu M.M.,CAS Institute of Subtropical Agriculture | Wu M.M.,University of Chinese Academy of Sciences | And 13 more authors.
Journal of Animal Science | Year: 2015

Deoxynivalenol (DON) causes various toxic effects in human and animals. However, our previous studies have shown that composite antimicrobial peptides (CAP) can have a protective effect in piglets challenged with DON. This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of the CAP GLAM 180# on the metabolism of piglets challenged with DON using a nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based metabolomics approach. A total of 28 individually housed piglets (Duroc × Landrace × Large Yorkshire) weaned at 28 d of age were randomly assigned into 4 treatment groups (7 pigs/treatment) based on a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement that were fed, respectively, a basal diet (NC), basal diet + 0.4% CAP (basal + CAP), basal diet + 4 mg/kg DON (basal + DON), and basal diet + 4 mg/ kg DON + 0.4% CAP (DON + CAP). A 7-d adaptation period was followed by 30 d of treatment. Blood samples were then collected for metabolite analysis by proton NMR (1H-NMR) spectroscopy and liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The combined results of1H-NMR spectroscopy and LC-MS/MS showed that DON increased (P < 0.05) the serum concentrations of low-density lipoprotein, glycoprotein, urea, trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO), and lactate as well as those of almost all essential AA and some nonessential AA but decreased the concentrations of high-density lipoprotein (HDL), unsaturated lipids, citrate, choline, and fumarate compared with those in NC treatment (P < 0.05). There was a significant interaction effect (P < 0.05) of supplementation with DON and CAP on some metabolites showed that the serum concentrations of HDL, unsaturated lipids, Pro, citrate, and fumarate were greater (P < 0.05) whereas those of glycoprotein, urea, TMAO, Gly, and lactate were lower in the DON + CAP treatment compared with those in the basal + DON treatment (P < 0.05). These findings indicated that DON causes disturbances in AA, lipid, and energy metabolism and that CAP could partially attenuate the above metabolic disturbances induced by DON. © 2015 American Society of Animal Science. All rights reserved.

Xiao D.,Hunan Agricultural University | Xiao D.,Hunan Collaborative Innovation Center for Utilization of Botanical Functional Ingredients | Zeng L.,Jiangxi Agricultural University | Yao K.,Hunan Agricultural University | And 7 more authors.
Amino Acids | Year: 2016

l-Glutamine is a nutritionally semi-essential amino acid for proper growth in most cells and tissues, and plays an important role in the determination and guarding of the normal metabolic processes of the cells. With the help of transport systems, extracellular l-glutamine crosses the plasma membrane and is converted into alpha-ketoglutarate (AKG) through two pathways, namely, the glutaminase (GLS) I and II pathway. Reversely, AKG can be converted into glutamine by glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) and glutamine synthetase (GS), or be converted into CO2 via the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle and provide energy for the cells. Different steps of glutamine metabolism (the glutamine-AKG axis) are regulated by several factors, rendering the glutamine-AKG axis a potential target to counteract cancer. Moreover, intracellular glutamine plays an important role in cellular homeostasis not only as a precursor for protein synthesis, but also for its nutritional roles in cell growth, lipid metabolism, insulin secretion, and so on. The main objective of this review is to highlight the metabolic pathways of glutamine to AKG, with special emphasis on nutritional and therapeutic use of glutamine-AKG axis to improve the health and well-being of animals and humans. © 2016 Springer-Verlag Wien

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