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Yu F.-X.,Hunan Biological Electromechanical Polytechnic | Yu F.-X.,Central South University of forestry and Technology | Yu F.-X.,National Engineering Laboratory for Grain Further Processing | Lin Q.-L.,Hunan Biological Electromechanical Polytechnic | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Ecology and Rural Environment | Year: 2013

A total of 120 samples of rough rice were collected from 6 main rice cultivation areas in China for analysis of content and distribution of Cd and Pb in the grains using atomic absorption spectrometry. Results show that the average Cd content in rough rice, milled rice, rice bran and rice bran oil was (0.116 ± 0.057), (0.089 ± 0.413), (0.149 ± 0.069), and (0.111 ± 0.043) mg · kg-1, respectively, and that the six main rice cultivation areas followed a descending order of Central China, South China, North China, Northwest China, Northeast China, and Southwest China in Cd content in rough rice and its processed products. The results also show that the average Pb content in rough rice, milled rice, rice bran and rice bran oil was (0.232 ± 0.105), (0.125 ± 0.061), (0.301 ± 0.142), and (0.089 ± 0.024) mg · kg-1, respectively, and that the six areas followed an descending order of Central China, South China, Northwest China, North China, Northeast China, and Southwest China in Pb content in rough rice and its processed products. In terms of average Cd content, rice bran came first and was then followed by rough rice, rice bran oil and milled rice in sequence, while in terms of Pb content, rice bran was still the first and was then followed by rough rice, milled rice and rice bran oil. The processing of rough rice into milled rice removed (9.40 ± 1.46) % Cd and (36.03 ± 1.15) % Pb, and the processing of rice bran into rice bran oil left (62.43 ± 2.00) % Cd and (31.24 ± 0.63) % Pb in the latter. Source


Xiao H.,Central South University of forestry and Technology | Lin Q.,Central South University of forestry and Technology | Liu G.-Q.,Central South University of forestry and Technology | Yu F.,Hunan Biological Electromechanical Polytechnic
Molecules | Year: 2012

The effects of black tea polyphenol extract (BTPE) on the retrogradation of starches from different plant sources were studied using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). DSC analysis shows that the gelatinization temperature of maize starch and starches from different rice varieties increased with increasing BTPE level. After storage at 4 °C, BTPE at a concentration of 15% markedly retarded the retrogradation of maize starch and starches from different rice varieties. Native maize starch and starches from different rice varieties showed typical A-type X-ray diffraction patterns, while native potato starch showed a typical B-type X-ray diffraction pattern. Adding BTPE significantly affected the crystalline region and intensities of X-ray diffraction peaks of maize and rice starch granules. It is concluded that adding BTPE markedly inhibits the retrogradation of maize starch and starches from different rice varieties, but has no significant influence on the gelatinization and retrogradation characteristics of potato starch. © 2012 by the authors. Source


Xiao H.,Central South University of forestry and Technology | Yang T.,Central South University of forestry and Technology | Lin Q.,Central South University of forestry and Technology | Liu G.-Q.,Central South University of forestry and Technology | And 3 more authors.
International Journal of Biological Macromolecules | Year: 2016

In this study, we developed a new nanoparticulate system for acetylated starch nanocrystals (ASN) using broken rice. ASN with different degrees of substitution (DS) of 0.04, 0.08 and 0.14 were prepared using acetic anhydride as acetylating agent through reaction with starch nanocrystals (SN). The resulting ASN were investigated for the capability to load and release doxorubicin hydrochloride (DOX), and the antitumor activities of DOX-loaded SN and DOX-loaded ASN were evaluated as potential drug delivery systems for cancer therapy. Cellular uptake and cytotoxicity of nanocrystals and the DOX-loaded nanocrystals were investigated using fluorescence microscopy and a 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) (MTT) assay. Compared with acetylated starches (AS) and native starches (NS), ASN with DS 0.14 loaded up to 6.07% of DOX with a higher loading efficiency of 91.1% and had steadier drug-release rates. Toxicity analysis using the rat hepatocytes model suggested that ASN was biocompatible and could be used for drug delivery. Furthermore, ASN were taken up by cancer cells in vitro and significantly enhanced the cytotoxicity of DOX against HeLa human cervical carcinoma cells. The IC50 value of DOX-loaded ASN-DS 0.14 was 3.8 μg/mL for 24 h of treatment, which was significantly lower than that of free DOX (21 μg/mL). These results indicate that the prepared ASN using broken rice is a promising vehicle for the controlled delivery of DOX for cancer therapy. © 2016 Elsevier B.V. Source


Yu F.,Hunan Biological Electromechanical Polytechnic | Lin Q.,Changsha University | Huang Z.,Hunan Biological Electromechanical Polytechnic
Journal of the Chinese Cereals and Oils Association | Year: 2013

To determinate the quantity of vegetable oils adulterated to rice bran oil rapidly and accurately, the palm oil, cottonseed oil, rapeseed oil, soybean oil had been added into pure rice bran oil. Quantity of fatty acids C10:0, C14:0, C16:0, C16:1, C18:0, C18:0, C18:1, C18:1, C18:2, C18:3, C20:0, C20:1, C22:0, C22:1 were determined by GC chromatography, vector included angle cosine method was used to calculate the adulteration and similarity. The models are: y=5.802 3x3-17.469x2-0.269 2x+99.99(R2=0.9996) when RBO mixed with palm oil, y =-23.62x3-8.380 6x2 - 6.138 3x+100.12(R2 = 0.999 4)with rapeseed oil, y =-240.52x5+677.8x4 - 697.92x3+312.09x2-66.998x + 99.97(R2=0.9993)with cottonseed oil and y = 12.33x3 - 26.047x2 - 2.6855x + 100.05(R2=0.999 1)with soybean oil. Source


Xiao H.-X.,Central South University of forestry and Technology | Lin Q.-L.,Central South University of forestry and Technology | Liu G.-Q.,Central South University of forestry and Technology | Yu F.-X.,Hunan Biological Electromechanical Polytechnic
Molecules | Year: 2012

Rice starch was cross-linked with epichlorohydrin (0.3%, w/w, on a dry starch basis) and oxidized with sodium hypochlorite (2.5% w/w), respectively. Two dual-modified rice starch samples (oxidized cross-linked rice starch and cross-linked oxidized rice starch) were obtained by the oxidation of cross-linked rice starch and the cross-linking of oxidized rice starch at the same level of reagents. The physicochemical properties of native rice starch, cross-linked rice starch and oxidized rice starch were also studied parallel with those of the two dual-modified rice starch samples using rapid visco analysis (RVA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), dynamic rheometry and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). It was found that the levels of cross-linking and oxidation used in this study did not cause any significant changes in the morphology of rice starch granules. Cross-linked oxidized starch showed lower swelling power (SP) and solubility, and higher paste clarity in comparison with native starch. Cross-linked oxidized rice starch also had the lowest tendency of retrogradation and highest ability to resistant to shear compared with native, cross-linked, oxidized and oxidized cross-linked rice starches. These results suggest that the undesirable properties in native, cross-linked and oxidized rice starch samples could be overcome through dual-modification. © 2012 by the authors. Source

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