Hunan Agricultural University
Changsha, China

Hunan Agricultural University is a public research university located in Changsha, Hunan, China.Founded in 1951, the University was incorporated by two independent colleges under the name "Hunan Agricultural College". Since Hunan was an agricultural powerhouse for the country, Mao Zedong, the founding father of the People's Republic of China, inscribed the school's name on its entrance sign. It changed to its current name in 1994.The institution began with a focus on training students in various agricultural disciplines. After more than a half century's development, the school has evolved into a renowned comprehensive university. In 1978, HAU started to award master's degrees. As of 2007, more than 50,000 students from 31 provinces across China study there, including 24,000 undergraduates, 26,000 continuing education students, 3000 graduate and doctoral students. Wikipedia.

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Potato plants that exhibited mosaic symptoms were collected in Xiangxi, Hunan province, China. Multiplex RT-PCR screening for common viruses revealed the presence of potato virus A (PVA) in these samples. ELISA with virus-specific antibodies confirmed infection by PVA in the plants. Rod-shaped virions of ~750 nm in length and ~13 nm in width were observed by transmission electron microscopy. One virus isolate (designated PVA-Hunan) was subjected to molecular characterization. The viral genome consisted of 9,567 nucleotides, excluding the poly(A) tail, and encoded a polyprotein of 3,059 amino acids. A second characteristic potyvirus open reading frame (ORF), pretty interesting Potyviridae ORF (pipo), was located at nucleotides 2,834-3,139. The isolate shared 84% to 98% and 93% to 99% sequence identity with other PVA isolates at the nucleotide and amino acid level, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that, within the PVA group, PVA-Hunan clustered most closely with the Finnish isolate Her, then with isolates 143, U, Ali, M and B11. The isolate TamMV stood alone at a separate branch. However, scanning of complete genome sequences using SimPlot revealed 99%-sequence identity between PVA-Hunan and TamMV in the 3'-proximal end of the genome (~nt 9,160 to the 3'end) and a 50%-94% (average~83%) identity upstream of nt 9,160. In contrast, 98% identity between PVA-Hunan and isolates M and B11 was detected for nucleotides 1 to ~9,160, but only ~94% for the 3'-proximal region, suggesting a genome recombination event (RE) at nt 9,133. The recombination breakpoint also was identified by the Recombination Detection Program (RDP). The RE was further confirmed by analysis of the CP gene, where the apparent RE was located.

News Article | November 24, 2015

The new kind of rice grows in a manner that nearly eliminates the production of methane, a potent greenhouse gas. And rice is a big source of methane: Scientists estimate that somewhere in the neighborhood of 8 to 15 percent of global methane emissions come from rice paddies around the world. Methane is 20 times more efficient at trapping heat in atmosphere than its better-known counterpart, carbon dioxide, making the team's contribution especially important for climate issues. The research has been recognized with a "Best of What's New" award for 2015 by Popular Science. The work was named the grand prize winner in the magazine's engineering category, one of 10 categories in which a total of 100 research developments around the globe were recognized. The awards are described in the December issue of the magazine. PNNL scientist Christer Jansson led the team; he is director of plant sciences at EMSL, the Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, a DOE user facility at PNNL. For more than a decade he has worked closely with Chuanxin Sun of the Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, who has contributed significantly to the research on rice. The two published a research paper about the rice in July in Nature, together with other researchers at the Swedish institution and colleagues at China's Fujian Academy of Agricultural Sciences and Hunan Agricultural University. To create the rice, the team identified a gene in barley that directs how that plant uses carbon, then spliced that gene into common rice. The change redirected the way the rice plant uses the carbon it pulls from the atmosphere, causing the plant to send more carbon into the plant's grain and stems and less into its roots. That change increases the amount of starch and the yield of rice and reduces the carbon available to the roots, where bacteria convert much of the substance into methane. "This is a win-win finding," said Jansson, a plant biochemist. "The process results in reduced methane emissions, which helps to mitigate climate change, and also results in more biomass - more food. This dual effect is very positive." Much of Jansson's work focuses on understanding how plants absorb light and tap water and carbon to carry out photosynthesis. The work is central to scientists who investigate "bioenergy," which involves creating or tapping biological materials for energy. Jansson has worked with crops like sorghum, rice and tobacco to discover new ways to create plants that offer novel energy traits. Explore further: A cyclical effect: More atmospheric CO2, more greenhouse gas per grain of rice

Chen D.,University of Strasbourg | Molitor A.,University of Strasbourg | Liu C.,Hunan Agricultural University | Shen W.-H.,University of Strasbourg
Cell Research | Year: 2010

Polycomb group genes play crucial roles in the maintenance of the transcriptionally silenced state of genes for proper cell differentiation in animals and plants. While components of the polycomb repressive complex2 (PRC2) are evolutionarily conserved and their functions are extensively studied in plants, PRC1 differs considerably between animals and plants, and its functions in plants are as yet not well described. Previous studies have identified the Arabidopsis AtRING1a and AtRING1b as homologues of the animal PRC1 subunit RING1. Here, we show that the Atring1a Atring1b double mutant exhibits derepression of embryonic traits during vegetative growth. Accordingly, several key regulatory genes involved in embryogenesis and stem cell activity are ectopically expressed in the mutant. Furthermore, we show that the mutant phenotypes and increased expression of regulatory genes are enhanced by the PRC2 mutant clf. Finally, we show that three homologues of the animal PRC1-subunit ring-finger protein BMI1, AtBMI1a, AtBMI1b and AtBMI1c, can bind with AtRING1a or AtRING1b, and in addition, AtBMI1c can bind with LHP1. The Atbmi1a Atbmi1b double mutant shows derepression of embryonic traits similar to that of the Atring1a Atring1b double mutant. Interestingly, expression levels of AtBMI1a, AtBMI1b and AtBMI1c are elevated in the Atring1a Atring1b mutant and those of AtBMI1c, AtRING1a and AtRING1b are elevated in the Atbmi1a Atbmi1b mutant, suggesting a self-regulatory feedback mechanism. Taken together, our results illuminate crucial functions of the PRC1-like ring-finger components in stable repression of embryonic traits and regulatory genes for proper somatic growth. © 2010 IBCB, SIBS, CAS All rights reserved.

Metabolism studies play an important role at various stages of drug discovery and development. Liquid chromatography combined with mass spectrometry (LC/MS) has become a most powerful and widely used analytical tool for identifying drug metabolites. The suitability of different types of mass spectrometers for metabolite profiling differs widely, and therefore, the data quality and reliability of the results also depend on which instrumentation is used. As one of the latest LC/MS instrumentation designs, hybrid ion trap/time-of-flight MS coupled with LC (LC-IT-TOF-MS) has successfully integrated ease of operation, compatibility with LC flow rates and data-dependent MSn with high mass accuracy and mass resolving power. The MSn and accurate mass capabilities are routinely utilized to rapidly confirm the identification of expected metabolites or to elucidate the structures of uncommon or unexpected metabolites. These features make the LC-IT-TOF-MS a very powerful analytical tool for metabolite identification. This paper begins with a brief introduction to some basic principles and main properties of a hybrid IT-TOF instrument. Then, a general workflow for metabolite profiling using LC-IT-TOF-MS, starting from sample collection and preparation to final identification of the metabolite structures, is discussed in detail. The data extraction and mining techniques to find and confirm metabolites are discussed and illustrated with some examples. This paper is directed to readers with no prior experience with LC-IT-TOF-MS and will provide a broad understanding of the development and utility of this instrument for drug metabolism studies. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Brassica juncea, a worldwide cultivated crop plant, produces seeds of different colors. Seed pigmentation is due to the deposition in endothelial cells of proanthocyanidins (PAs), end products from a branch of flavonoid biosynthetic pathway. To elucidate the gene regulatory network of seed pigmentation in B. juncea, transcriptomes in seed coat of a yellow-seeded inbred line and its brown-seeded near- isogenic line were sequenced using the next-generation sequencing platform Illumina/Solexa and de novo assembled. Over 116 million high-quality reads were assembled into 69,605 unigenes, of which about 71.5% (49,758 unigenes) were aligned to Nr protein database with a cut-off E-value of 10(-5). RPKM analysis showed that the brown-seeded testa up-regulated 802 unigenes and down-regulated 502 unigenes as compared to the yellow-seeded one. Biological pathway analysis revealed the involvement of forty six unigenes in flavonoid biosynthesis. The unigenes encoding dihydroflavonol reductase (DFR), leucoantho-cyanidin dioxygenase (LDOX) and anthocyanidin reductase (ANR) for late flavonoid biosynthesis were not expressed at all or at a very low level in the yellow-seeded testa, which implied that these genes for PAs biosynthesis be associated with seed color of B. juncea, as confirmed by qRT-PCR analysis of these genes. To our knowledge, it is the first time to sequence the transcriptome of seed coat in Brassica juncea. The unigene sequences obtained in this study will not only lay the foundations for insight into the molecular mechanisms underlying seed pigmentation in B.juncea, but also provide the basis for further genomics research on this species or its allies.

Li J.L.,Hunan Agricultural University
Genetics and molecular research : GMR | Year: 2012

Identification of splice sites plays a key role in the annotation of genes. Consequently, improvement of computational prediction of splice sites would be very useful. We examined the effect of the window size and the number and position of the consensus bases with a chi-square test, and then extracted the sequence multi-scale component features and the position and adjacent position relationship features of consensus sites. Then, we constructed a novel classification model using a support vector machine with the previously selected features and applied it to the Homo sapiens splice site dataset. This method greatly improved cross-validation accuracies for training sets with true and spurious splice sites of both equal and different proportions. This method was also applied to the NN269 dataset for further evaluation and independent testing. The results were superior to those obtained with previous methods, and demonstrate the stability and superiority of this method for prediction of splice sites.

Yu X.-Z.,Hunan Agricultural University | Zhang F.-Z.,Hunan Agricultural University
Journal of Hazardous Materials | Year: 2012

A study was conducted to investigate activities of nitrate reductase (NR) and glutamine synthetase (GS) in plants during cyanide metabolism. Young rice seedlings (Oryza sativa L. cv. XZX 45) were grown in the nutrient solutions containing KNO 3 or NH 4Cl and treated with free cyanide (KCN). Cyanide in solutions and in plant materials was analyzed to estimate the phyto-assimilation potential. Activities of NR and GS in different parts of rice seedlings were assayed in vivo. Seedlings grown on NH 4 + showed significantly higher relative growth rate than those on NO 3 - (p<0.05) in the presence of exogenous cyanide. The metabolic rates of cyanide by seedlings were all positively correlated to the concentrations supplied. A negligible difference was observed between the two treatments with nitrate and ammonium (p>0.05). Enzymatic assays showed that cyanide (≥0.97mgCNL -1) impaired NR activity significantly in both roots and shoots (p<0.05). The effect of cyanide on GS activity in roots was more evident at 1.93mgCNL -1, suggesting that NR activity was more susceptible to change from cyanide application than GS activity. The results observed here suggest that the exogenous cyanide, which to a certain level has a beneficial role in plant nutrition. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

Li Y.,Hunan Agricultural University | Liu X.,Hunan Agricultural University | Lin Z.,Hunan Agricultural University
Food Chemistry | Year: 2012

Over the past 10 years, great efforts on the development of methods for rapid mycotoxin detection in foodstuffs have been made. As one of the relatively new analytical techniques, surface plasmon resonance (SPR) has been proven particularly advantageous for rapid, label-free, sensitive analyte detection. Using SPR, qualitative and quantitative analysis can be performed in real-time. Mycotoxins are a group of small, toxic products formed as secondary metabolites by a few fungal species. They can contaminate foodstuffs on a large scale and consequently threaten human health through food chain. Thus, rapid, sensitive, and selective determination of mycotoxin is of great significance for the food safety. This contribution addresses the basic principle of SPR, the existing detection methods, and the progress on mycotoxin detection using SPR biosensor. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Gao X.,Xiangtan University | Zhang F.,Hunan Agricultural University | Deng G.,Xiangtan University | Yang L.,Xiangtan University
Organic Letters | Year: 2014

A practical Brønsted acid promoted benzylic C-H functionalization of 2-alkylazaarenes and nucleophilic addition to nitroso compounds was developed under mild conditions. Switched by Brønsted acids, this method can afford azaarene-2-aldimines, azaarene-2-carbaldehyde, or azaarene-2-oximes selectively. No metal, base, oxidant, or other additives were required. © 2014 American Chemical Society.

Zou D.,Hunan Agricultural University | Chen X.,Hunan Agricultural University
Genomics | Year: 2013

Eulaliopsis binata is one of the best fiber grass plants for its high fiber quality and production. Large scale trancriptome sequencing of E. binata was first performed using mixed leaf samples of 20 wild clusters. A total of 26,438,832 clean reads were generated and were assembled into 59,134 isogenes with an average length of 845. bp. BLAST against the NCBI non-redundant protein, KEGG and GO databases has classified these isogenes into functional categories for understanding gene functions and regulation pathways. Only 15.0% of the assembled isogenes were similar to known proteins and 24.4% has no hits in the nr protein database. The total isogenes and 5306 highly expressed isogenes were performed by BLASTx with the MAIZEWALL, the cell wall navigator and the PlantTFDB databases. A total of 6681 simple sequence repeats (SSRs) and 147,177 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were detected in the isogenes and 5723 pairs of SSR primers were designed. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.

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