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Li S.,Central South University of forestry and Technology | Shan Y.,Hunan Academy of Agricultural science | Zhu X.,Hunan Academy of Agricultural science | Zhang X.,Central South University | Ling G.,Central South University of forestry and Technology
Journal of Food Composition and Analysis | Year: 2012

Raman spectroscopy was used to detect adulterants such as high fructose corn syrup (HFCS) and maltose syrup (MS) in honey. HFCS and MS were each mixed with authentic honey samples in the following ratios: 1:10 (10%), 1:5 (20%) and 1:2.5 (40%, w/w). Adaptive iteratively reweighted penalized least squares (airPLS) was chosen to remove background of spectral data. Partial least squares-linear discriminant analysis (PLS-LDA) was used to develop a binary classification model. Classification of honey authenticity using PLS-LDA showed a total accuracy of 91.1% (authentic honey vs. adulterated honey with HFCS), 97.8% (authentic honey vs. adulterated honey with MS) and 75.6% (authentic honey vs. adulterated honey with HFCS and MS), respectively. Classification of honey adulterants (e.g. HFCS or MS) using PLS-LDA gave a total accuracy of 84.4%. The results showed that Raman spectroscopy combined with PLS-LDA was a potential technique for detecting adulterants in honey. © 2012 Elsevier Inc. Source

Liu Y.-T.,Jiangnan University | Sun J.,Jiangnan University | Luo Z.-Y.,Hunan Academy of Agricultural science | Rao S.-Q.,Jiangnan University | And 3 more authors.
Food and Chemical Toxicology | Year: 2012

Evaluation of the chemical composition and antihyperglycemic and antioxidant activity of five wild edible mushrooms (Clitocybe maxima, Catathelasma ventricosum, Stropharia rugoso-annulata, Craterellus cornucopioides and Laccaria amethystea) from Southwest China. The chemical composition assay includes proximate analysis (moisture, ash, crude protein, crude fat, total carbohydrates and total energy), bioactive compounds analysis (total phenolic, flavonoid, ascorbic acid, ergosterol, tocopherol), fatty acid analysis, amino acid analysis, phenolic compounds analysis and mineral analysis of these mushrooms. Furthermore, assays of α-glucosidase inhibitory and α-amylase inhibitory activity were used for evaluating antihyperglycemic activity of the mushrooms, and assays of reducing power, chelating effect on ferrous ions, scavenging effect on hydroxyl free radicals and 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity were used for evaluating antioxidant activity of the mushrooms. Based on the results, ethanolic and aqueous extract of these mushroom all showed antihyperglycemic and antioxidant potential. In particular, the aqueous extract of C. ventricosum revealed the highest α-glucosidase inhibitory activity (EC50 value 2.74. μg/mL), DPPH radical scavenging activity (EC50 value 2.86. mg/mL) and reducing power (EC50 value 0.96. mg/mL), while the aqueous extract of L. amethystea showed the highest α-amylase inhibitory activity (EC50 value 4.37. μg/mL) and metal chelating activity (EC50 value 2.13. mg/mL). © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Qi J.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Liu X.,BGI Shenzhen | Shen D.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Miao H.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | And 25 more authors.
Nature Genetics | Year: 2013

Most fruits in our daily diet are the products of domestication and breeding. Here we report a map of genome variation for a major fruit that encompasses ∼3.6 million variants, generated by deep resequencing of 115 cucumber lines sampled from 3,342 accessions worldwide. Comparative analysis suggests that fruit crops underwent narrower bottlenecks during domestication than grain crops. We identified 112 putative domestication sweeps; 1 of these regions contains a gene involved in the loss of bitterness in fruits, an essential domestication trait of cucumber. We also investigated the genomic basis of divergence among the cultivated populations and discovered a natural genetic variant in a β-carotene hydroxylase gene that could be used to breed cucumbers with enhanced nutritional value. The genomic history of cucumber evolution uncovered here provides the basis for future genomics-enabled breeding. Source

Zhao C.,China Agricultural University | Tang T.,China Agricultural University | Tang T.,Hunan Academy of Agricultural science | Feng X.,China Agricultural University | Qiu L.,China Agricultural University
Pest Management Science | Year: 2014

BACKGROUND: Previous studies in our laboratory showed that cytochrome P450 CYP6B7 plays a critical role in a Handan fenvalerate resistant strain (HDFR) of Helicoverpa armigera. As an important component of P450 enzyme systems, cytochrome P450 reductase (CPR) plays an essential role in transferring electrons from NADPH to the P450-substrate complex. However, little information about CPR in H. armigera (HaCPR) has been reported. RESULTS: A full-length cDNA (3525 bp) of HaCPR was cloned. The open reading frame of the HaCPR gene encoded 687 amino acids and shared 27.87-95.21% identities with other known CPRs. Bioinformatic analysis showed that HaCPR is a transmembrane protein with Mw of 77.4 kDa and contains conserved features. The results of real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction showed that the expression level of HaCPR mRNA was 1.84-fold higher in midgut of 5th instars of the Handan susceptible strain than that in pupae, and the level in the midgut of HDFR strain was 2.02-fold higher than that of the Handan susceptible strain. The levels of HaCPR mRNA were induced by phenobarbital at concentrations of 2 and 4 mg g-1, which enhanced 5.20- and 17.45-fold, respectively, compared to that of the control after 48 h of phenobarbital treatment. CONCLUSIONS: The results indicate that HaCPR is important for the development of H. armigera and may play an essential role in the P450-mediated insecticide resistance of H. armigera to fenvalerate.© 2013 Society of Chemical Industry. Source

Deng M.H.,Hunan Academy of Agricultural science
Genetics and molecular research : GMR | Year: 2012

NADP-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase (NADP-ICDH) is an important enzyme involved in energy metabolism. The complete coding sequence of the pepper (Capsicum annuum) NADP-ICDH gene was amplified using a reverse transcriptase PCR based on the conserved sequence information of the tomato and other Solanaceae plants and known highly homologous pepper ESTs. Nucleotide sequence analysis revealed that the pepper NADP-ICDH gene encodes a protein of 415 amino acids that has high homology with the proteins of seven species, Solanum tuberosum (100%), Citrus limon (98%), Daucus carota (98%), Nicotiana tabacum (98%), Vitis vinifera (99%), Arabidopsis thaliana (97%), and Oryza sativa (98%). Tissue expression analysis demonstrated that the pepper NADP-ICDH gene is over expressed in flower, pericarp and seed, moderately in placenta, weakly in stem and leaf, hardly expressed in root. At the abortion stages, activities and expression levels of NADP-ICDH in anthers of a sterile line were strongly reduced, while those in an F(1) hybrid remained normal. Activities and expression levels of NADP-ICDH were too low to maintain balanced energy metabolism in the sterile line, which indicated that stable transcripts of NADP-ICDH are necessary to maintain energy metabolism at a normal level. When the restorer gene was transferred to the cytoplasmic male sterile line, activities and expression level of NADP-ICDH were regulated by the restorer gene and became stable. The restorer gene likely plays an important role in keeping the balance of the energy metabolism within normal levels during microspore development. Source

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