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Gidey Y.T.,Humera Agricultural Research Center | Kebede S.A.,Jimma University | Gashawbeza G.T.,Holetta Agricultural Research Center
Asian Journal of Agricultural Research | Year: 2012

The aim of this study was to characterize and to estimate the extent of genetic variation of morphological attributes of Ethiopian sesame landraces (Sesamum indicum L.). An experiment was conducted in 2010 at Humera and Dansha, Ethiopia. Eighty one germplasm accessions were grown in a lattice design with 2 replications. Data on 17 traits were collected and analyzed. Differences among the accessions were significant for all of the traits at each location and pooled over location. The accessions were grouped into six clusters of different sizes. Cumulative effects of a number of characters dictated differentiation of the accessions into clusters. There was no definite relationship between geographic and genetic diversity as overlapping was encountered in clustering pattern among accessions from different parts of the country. Accessions from different regions might have similar genetic background and those from the same origin might also have different genetic diversity. Therefore, geographic diversity should not necessarily be used as an index of genetic diversity and parental selection should be based on a systematic study of genetic diversity in a specific population. Genetic distances among most of the clusters were significant that crosses between parents selected out of them are expected to generate desirable genetic recombination. Selection should also consider the special advantages of each cluster and each accession within a cluster. Future germplasm collection, conservation and breeding efforts should focus not only on inter-regional diversity but also on intr a-regional diversity. © 2012 Knowledgia Review, Malaysia.

Teklu D.H.,Humera Agricultural Research Center | Kebede S.A.,Jimma University | Gebremichael D.E.,Werer Agricultural Research Center
Asian Journal of Agricultural Research | Year: 2014

Sixty four sesame genotypes were evaluated in 8x8 simple lattice design at Dansha, in Western Tigray, in 2013/14. The objectives of t he study were to estimate the extent of genetic variability and association between yield and related traits. Analysis of variance revealed that there was highly significant (p<0.01) difference among the sixty four genotypes for all the fourteen characters studied. Number of capsule per plant and seed yield per ha recorded high Genotypic Coefficients of Variation (GCV) and Phenotypic Coefficients of Variation (PCV). The highest heritability value was for days to 50% flowering. Traits like, number of capsule per plant and seed yield per ha had high Phenotypic Coefficients of Variation (PCV), Genotypic Coefficients of Variation (GCV), moderately high heritability (h2) and genetic advance as a percentage of mean (GAM). This indicates that these characters can be improved through selection than heritability estimates alone. Number of primary branches per plant showed positive significant phenotypic and genotypic correlation with grain yield. Genotypically, path coefficient analysis based on grain yield as a dependent variable revealed that plant height and number of primary branches per plant exerted positive direct effect on seed yield. These characters had also positive and significant correlation with seed yield and this indicates true relationship between these traits and see yield. Therefore, emphasis should be given for these characters of sesame improvement program in future. © 2014 Knowledgia Review, Malaysia.

Aregawi T.,Humera Agricultural Research Center | Animut G.,Haramaya University | Kassa H.,Haramaya University
Livestock Research for Rural Development | Year: 2013

The handling, utilization, feeding practices of sesame straw (SS) and constraints limiting its use in two districts, namely Kafta Humera and Metema of the Northwestern lowlands of Ethiopia were assessed by interviewing 120 households stratified into three strata (poor, middle and better off) based on wealth status. For evaluating the nutritional values of SS, samples from three sesame cultivars (Hirhir, Adi and Bawnji) and three straw morphological fractions (whole straw, stem and capsule) were considered. The annual estimated SS yield was 142,369 tonnes in Kafta Humera and 27,605 tonnes in Metema. The amount of SS used as animal feed in Kafta Humera district was about 16.4% of the SS produced, and was almost three fold to that used in Metema district. Based on wealth categories, the middle and poor households utilized SS for economical purposes such as feed, as mulch and as source of income more than the better off. Lack of awareness was the major constraint by all respondents in Metema and by 59% of the respondents in Kafta Humera noted as limiting factor for the use of SS as animal feed. The crude protein (CP) content was greater in the capsule (5.44%) than in the stem (3.56%), and that of the neutral detergent fiber (NDF) was lower in the capsule (61%) than in the stem (77%) fraction, while value for the whole straw was intermediate. In vitro organic matter digestibility (IVOMD) ranged from 32% for stem to 50% for capsule. IVOMD differ among cultivars (P < 0.05) and was 41.7, 39.1 and 38.5% for Hirhir, Bawnji and Adi, respectively. In general, SS is low in CP and IVOMD, but high in cell wall fiber content. Therefore, efficient utilization of SS in the study area necessitate for designing appropriate strategies to enhance the feeding value of the straw, along with the creation of awareness about the potential of the resource as feed.

Aregawi T.,Humera Agricultural Research Center | Animut G.,Haramaya University | Kebede K.,Haramaya University | Kassa H.,Haramaya University
Livestock Research for Rural Development | Year: 2014

This study was carried out to determine effect of lime and/or urea treatment of sesame straw (SS) on intake, digestibility and daily body weight (BW) gain (ADG) of sheep. Twenty four yearling intact male Begait sheep with initial BW of 29.2+2.79 (mean+SD) were grouped into six blocks of four animals each and randomly assigned to four dietary treatments. Treatments were untreated SS (CT), 3% lime treated SS (L3), 4% urea and 3% lime mixture treated SS (L3U4) and 4% urea treated SS (U4). The straw was fed ad libitum and each animal was supplemented with concentrate mixture composed of 184g dry matter (DM) sesame seed cake and 87g DM wheat bran. The experiment consisted of a feeding trial of 90 days and digestibility trial of 7 days. The crude protein (CP) content of SS in CT, L3, L3U4 and U4 were 4.44, 4.01, 7.88 and 7.92 % DM. Total DM intake was 1034, 957, 995, 1323 g/day (SEM = 22.2) and was highest for U4 followed by CT then L3, while the value for L3U4 was similar with CT and L3. Intake of CP was in the order of U4 > L3U4 > CT > L3 (45.9, 38.4, 78.4 and 105 g/day for CT, L3, L3U4 and U4, respectively). Digestibility of DM was higher for L3U4 (58%) and U4 (62%) as compared to CT (43%) and L3 (50%). Digestibility of CP ranged 28% for CT and 51% for U4 and was in the order of U4 > L3 > CT, while the value for L3U4 was similar with L3 and U4. ADG was in the order of U4 > L3U4 > L3 = CT (29, 37, 51, 67 g/day (SEM = 2.7)) for CT, L3, L3U4 and U4, respectively. Results of this study suggested that urea treatment of SS positively impacts intake, digestibility and body weight gain of Begait sheep. Conversely, lime treatment failed to improve the feeding value of SS to sheep. Moreover, treatment of SS with a combination of lime and urea did not have an additive effect in enhancing the feeding value of SS. Therefore, according to the current results SS treatment with urea solution along with supplemental protein and energy source is a good option in improving the utilization of the sesame straw.

Gebremariam G.,Humera Agricultural Research Center | Assefa D.,Mekelle University
International Journal of Agricultural Research | Year: 2015

Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) is an important food crop in Ethiopian. The plant’s capacity to produce respectable yields under unfavorable growing situations has made it a well-liked crop for many growers. However, the crop’s production is constrained by many biotic and abiotic factors amongst Striga hermonthica (Del.) Benth is the most tenacious, prolific and destructive pests of sorghum. Striga is most abundant and damaging on soils of low fertility and nitrogen is an essential element for reversing this effect. A study was conducted during 2008 (2000/01 E.C.) main crop growing season in Northern Ethiopia to study the productivity response of sorghum to rates of nitrogen application under natural Striga infestation. The experiment was arranged in randomized complete block design with three replications. The experiment consisted of four nitrogen fertilizer levels (0, 50, 100 and 150 kg ha-1). Data on sorghum growth parameters and yield components as well as some Striga growth parameters were recorded at their respective growth stages. Results showed that application of N-fertilizer significantly increased plant height, leaf area index, panicle length, yield per panicle, 1000 grain weight, grain yield, stover yield and harvest index over the control. Highest responses of these parameters were obtained with application of 150 kg N ha-1. Striga plant height, number of branches per plant and Striga plant count/plot were also reduced significantly (p<0.05) with 150 kg N ha-1 application over the control by 9.54, 35.76 and 36.95%, respectively. © 2015 Academic Journals Inc.

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