Hessle, United Kingdom
Hessle, United Kingdom

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Collins J.,Arup | Hornby R.,Arup | Smith D.,C Spencer Ltd. | Hill P.,Humber Bridge Board | Webb J.,Humber Bridge Board
IABSE Conference, Geneva 2015: Structural Engineering: Providing Solutions to Global Challenges - Report | Year: 2015

Bearings connecting the 1410 m main span deck box to the towers of the Humber were heavily worn. A challenging £4m (US$6.3m) replacement scheme including significant temporary works was implemented. All works to this landmark structure took place with the bridge open to traffic.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: BSG-SME | Phase: SME-2011-1 | Award Amount: 1.50M | Year: 2011

Wireless sensor networks have been identified as a research priority by the European Technology Platform on Smart Systems Integration (EPoSS). Recognising this, the SMEs in this Project are seeking EC funding to develop a prototype wide-area wireless sensor network with autonomous nodes containing non-destructive (NDT) sensors, for structural health monitoring (SHM) of large structures, specifically bridges and vessels in petrochemical plant. They have formed a consortium with expertise in a range of technologies needed to optimise solutions and develop this innovative new product. The aim is to develop an NDT node that is autonomous and self-configuring for optimal performance, and requires no maintenance over its operating life. The nodes will be packaged for reliable operation in hazardous environments and will rely on energy harvesting to provide long-term power supply. The wireless communications will allow simple place-and-play usability. The NDT techniques to be implemented are long range ultrasonics for global monitoring of a structure, ACFM for local surface corrosion and cracks, pulse-echo ultrasonics for internal corrosion and tip diffraction ultrasonics for internal cracks. The prototype will show scalability up to very large structures.


Collins J.,Arup | Hornby R.,Arup | Hill P.,Humber Bridge Board | Cooper J.,Humber Bridge Board
Assessment, Upgrading and Refurbishment of Infrastructures | Year: 2013

The Humber Bridge was opened in 1981 and carries the A15 dual carriageway over the Humber estuary, UK. From opening until 1997, it was the longest single span suspension bridge in the world with a main span of 1410 m. The deck is discontinuous at the towers where pairs of A-frame rocker bearings control the vertical and lateral position of the deck and provide a torsional reaction to the deck box. Extensive wear to the pin bearings of the main-span A-frame rockers was apparent, hampering their performance. Six refurbishment / replacement options were considered prior to selection of replacement of the A-frames by pendels and a wind shoe. The pendels will be connected to the deck box and tower portal beam at their ends using spherical bearing housed pins offering future durability and maintenance advantages. The wind shoe cantilevers from the deck box end, horizontal reaction provided by opposed hydraulically preloaded sliding bearings.


Brownjohn J.M.W.,University of Sheffield | Koo K.-Y.,Korea University | Scullion A.,Humber Bridge Board | List D.,Tamar Bridge and Torpoint Ferry
Bridge Maintenance, Safety, Management, Resilience and Sustainability - Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference on Bridge Maintenance, Safety and Management | Year: 2012

Being among the most flexible of civil engineering structures, long span bridges deform both dynamically and quasi-statically under a range of operational conditions including wind, traffic and thermal loads, in varying patterns, with different timescales and at different amplitudes. While external loads and internal forces can only rarely be measured, there are well developed and emerging technologies for measuring deformation. It is well known that some of these technologies can be used to validate or improve numerical simulations, which can then be used to estimate the external loads and internal forces. Changes in response patterns and relationships can also be used directly as a diagnostic tool, signaling unusual loading or structural changes, but excessive deformations themselves are a concern in terms of serviceability and allowable operational limits (e.g. of vibration, and bearing movement). This paper discusses the challenges of deformation measurement and applications in structural identification, performance diagnosis and load estimation, including observations of response to the most extreme loads. © 2012 Taylor & Francis Group.


Hornby S.R.,Arup | Collins J.H.,Arup | Hill P.G.,Humber Bridge Board | Cooper J.R.,Humber Bridge Board
Bridge Maintenance, Safety, Management, Resilience and Sustainability - Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference on Bridge Maintenance, Safety and Management | Year: 2012

The A-frame rocker bearings of the 1410 m main span of the Humber Bridge (opened in 1981) are approaching the end of their serviceable life. Accumulated sliding displacements of the deck of 4.5 km/year have caused excessive wear to the main span A-frames bearings. Longitudinal deck movements primarily associated with traffic load but also thermal and wind effects result in a movement range of over ±1 m. Reversible axial loading on the A-frames in the region of 8 MN (compression) and 5 MN (tension) is dominated by the torsional reaction provided to the deck box. These findings were used to inform an option selection exercise for the refurbishment or replacement of the main span A-frames. From six feasible options considered, a single preferred replacement option of vertical pendels with a wind shoe cantilevering from the ends of the deck box was developed. Construction is forecast to commence in 2012. © 2012 Taylor & Francis Group.


Brownjohn J.M.W.,University of Exeter | Koo K.-Y.,University of Exeter | Scullion A.,Humber Bridge Board | List D.,Tamar Bridge and Torpoint Ferry Joint Committee
Structure and Infrastructure Engineering | Year: 2015

Long-span bridges deform quasi-statically and dynamically under a range of operational conditions including wind, traffic and thermal loads, in varying patterns, at different timescales and with different amplitudes. While external loads and internal forces can only rarely be measured, there are well-developed technologies for measuring deformations and their time and space derivatives. Performance data can be checked against design limits and used for validating conceptual and numerical models which can in turn be used to estimate the external loads and internal forces. Changes in performance patterns and load–response relationships can also be used directly as a diagnostic tool, but excessive deformations themselves are also a concern in terms of serviceability. This paper describes application of a range of measurement technologies, focusing on response to extreme loads, for suspension bridges over the River Tamar (with 335 m main span) and Humber (with 1410 m man span). The effects of vehicular, thermal and wind loads on these very different structures are compared, showing that apart from rare extreme traffic and wind loads, temporal and spatial temperature variations dominate quasi-static response. Observations of deformation data and sensor performance for the two bridges are used to highlight limitations and redundancies in the instrumentation. © 2014, © 2014 Taylor & Francis.


Brownjohn J.M.W.,North Park University | Koo K.-Y.,North Park University | Scullion A.,Humber Bridge Board | List D.,Tamar Bridge and Torpoint Ferry Joint Committee
Structure and Infrastructure Engineering | Year: 2014

Long-span bridges deform quasi-statically and dynamically under a range of operational conditions including wind, traffic and thermal loads, in varying patterns, at different timescales and with different amplitudes. While external loads and internal forces can only rarely be measured, there are well-developed technologies for measuring deformations and their time and space derivatives. Performance data can be checked against design limits and used for validating conceptual and numerical models which can in turn be used to estimate the external loads and internal forces. Changes in performance patterns and load-response relationships can also be used directly as a diagnostic tool, but excessive deformations themselves are also a concern in terms of serviceability. This paper describes application of a range of measurement technologies, focusing on response to extreme loads, for suspension bridges over the River Tamar (with 335 m main span) and Humber (with 1410 m man span). The effects of vehicular, thermal and wind loads on these very different structures are compared, showing that apart from rare extreme traffic and wind loads, temporal and spatial temperature variations dominate quasi-static response. Observations of deformation data and sensor performance for the two bridges are used to highlight limitations and redundancies in the instrumentation. © 2014 © 2014 Taylor & Francis.


Hoult N.A.,Queen's University | Fidler P.R.A.,University of Cambridge | Hill P.G.,Humber Bridge Board | Middleton C.R.,University of Cambridge
Journal of Bridge Engineering | Year: 2010

As part of an effective bridge management system, sensor networks can provide data to support both inspection and assessment. Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) have the potential to offer significant advantages over traditional wired monitoring systems in terms of sensor, cabling, and installation costs as well as expandability. However, there are drawbacks with WSNs relating to power, data bandwidth, and robustness. To evaluate the potential of WSNs for use in bridge management, a network of seven sensor nodes was installed on the Ferriby Road Bridge, a three-span reinforced concrete bridge. Three displacement transducer nodes were placed across cracks on the soffit of the bridge to measure the change in crack width. Three inclinometer sensor nodes were mounted on two of the elastomeric bearing pads to measure the change in inclination of the bearing pads while a final node monitored temperature in the box that contained the gateway. The installation of the WSN is discussed and data from this network is analyzed. Finally, the use of sensor networks to support inspection and assessment is discussed. © 2010 ASCE.


Hoult N.A.,Queen's University | Fidler P.R.A.,University of Cambridge | Hill P.G.,Humber Bridge Board | Middleton C.R.,University of Cambridge
Smart Structures and Systems | Year: 2010

Internationally the load carrying capacity of bridges is decreasing due to material deterioration while at the same time increasing live loads mean that they are often exposed to stresses for which they were not designed. However there are limited resources available to ensure that these bridges are fit for purpose, meaning that new approaches to bridge maintenance are required that optimize both their service lives as well as maintenance costs. Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) provide a tool that could support such an optimized maintenance program. In many situations WSNs have advantages over conventional wired monitoring systems in terms of installation time and cost. In order to evaluate the potential of these systems two WSNs were installed starting in July 2007 on the Humber Bridge and on a nearby approach bridge. As part of a corrosion prevention strategy, a relative humidity and temperature monitoring system was installed in the north anchorage chambers of the main suspension bridge where the main cables of the bridge are anchored into the foundation. This system allows the Bridgemaster to check whether the maximum relative humidity threshold, above which corrosion of the steel wires might occur, is not crossed. A second WSN which monitors aspects of deterioration on a reinforced concrete bridge located on the approach to the main suspension bridge was also installed. Though both systems have provided useful data to the owners, there are still challenges that must be overcome in terms of monitoring corrosion of steel, measuring live loading and data management before WSNs can become an effective tool for bridge managers.


Cocksedge C.P.E.,AECOM Technology Corporation | Bulmer M.J.,AECOM Technology Corporation | Hill P.G.,Humber Bridge Board | Cooper J.R.,Humber Bridge Board
Bridge Structures | Year: 2011

When opened in 1981, the Humber Bridge became the world's longest span at 1410 m, a record it held for 17 years. Internal cable inspections of the two older major UK suspension bridges from 2004 to 2006 revealed unexpected levels of corrosion and broken wires. Following this discovery the Humber Bridge Board commissioned the development of a pro-active maintenance strategy which led to an internal inspection of the cables in 2009. Although only a few broken wires were found, there was extensive corrosion present which confirmed the need to minimize future deterioration and monitor the cable condition. A cable dehumidification system has been designed and installed on the bridge to prolong the life of the cables, and this sets new standards in terms of speed, quality and safety of the installation of the largest retrofitted system in the world. An acoustic monitoring system has also been installed which is the largest acoustic monitoring system currently fitted on a suspension bridge. © 2011 - IOS Press and the authors. All rights reserved.

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