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Yabushita A.,Kyoto University | Hama T.,Hokkaido University | Kawasaki M.,Humanity
Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology C: Photochemistry Reviews | Year: 2013

The photoprocesses of water ice play an important role in regions of interstellar space, such as interstellar clouds and outer solar systems. Vacuum-ultraviolet absorption of water ice leads to dissociation of water molecules, and allows subsequent reactions of photoproducts on/in ice. There have been many laboratory studies that identify photoproducts and estimate product yields, reaction mechanisms and energy partitioning in the reaction products. Among them, the experimental approaches aimed at understanding the photoprocesses on the water ice surface can give new insight into the chemical reaction network in interstellar space. In this review, we focus on photochemical processes of water ice relevant to surface astrochemistry following vacuum-ultraviolet photolysis of water ice at a low temperature from a surface reaction dynamics' point of view. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. Source


HBeAg seroconversion, in association with undetectable levels of hepatitis B virus DNA as determined by polymerase chain reaction, is an important goal in the treatment of patients with HBeAg-positive chronic hepatitis B (CHB). Achievement of sustained HBeAg seroconversion at an early age (<40 years) is associated with a reduced incidence of hepatic complications, increased rates of HBsAg loss and seroconversion and improved survival rates, whether the seroconversion is spontaneous or treatment induced. Patients with HBeAg-positive CHB who achieve sustained HBeAg seroconversion and complete 6-12 months of consolidation therapy are eligible for stopping therapy. In randomized clinical studies involving patients with HBeAg-positive CHB, treatment with pegylated interferon (PegIFN)- α is associated with higher and more durable HBeAg seroconversion rates than are lamivudine and adefovir. More recently, newer generation oral nucleos(t)ide analogs (NAs) have become available. These include entecavir, telbivudine and tenofovir, and they demonstrate superior antiviral potency and efficacy. This review examines the importance of HBeAg seroconversion as an end point for therapy in the treatment of patients with HBeAg-positive CHB, and examines the rates and durability of HBeAg seroconversion with PegIFN and oral NA therapy. The mechanisms for enhanced HBeAg seroconversion rates with new-generation NAs are also discussed. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Source


Iwasaki S.,Humanity
Ocean and Coastal Management | Year: 2013

This article delineates an evolutionary perspective of fishers-based watershed management from the viewpoint of sustainable fish production in lagoon fisheries. A case study of Lake Saroma, Japan is presented showcasing the innovative efforts of fishers on the wise use of fishery resources and mainstreaming environmental conservation at the watershed level. Innovative efforts include the introduction of cultured scallop allowance limits, fishers' aforestation activities and multi-level collaborative partnership building. The study highlights a wider realization of lagoon fisheries management at multiple scales, where the role of the coordinator is key in sharing the concept of integrated lagoon fisheries management among relevant stakeholders. Based on the Lake Saroma experience, this article contributes to the development of nested collaborative partnerships among stakeholders toward fishers-based integrated lagoon fisheries management. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Zhou X.F.,Humanity
Zhongguo zhen jiu = Chinese acupuncture & moxibustion | Year: 2013

To observe the clinical efficacy of acupuncture at twelve meridians acupoints on general anxiety disorder and explore its mechanism. Eighty patients were randomized into an acupuncture group and a clonazepam group, 40 cases in each one. In the acupuncture group, acupuncture at twelve meridians acupoints was applied, meaning quick needling at the specific acupoints of each meridian, such as Lieque (LU 7) of the Lung Meridian, Hegu (LI 4) of the Large Intestine Meridian and Shenmen (HT 7) of the Heart Meridian. After arrival of qi, the reinforcing or reducing technique was applied accordingly and the needles were not retained. In the clonazepam group, clonazepam was prescribed for oral administration. The course of treatment was 6 weeks. Before treatment and in 2, 4 and 6 weeks of treatment, respectively, Hamilton Anxiety Scale (HAMA) was evaluated in two groups and the changes in the basic electrical activity of brain waves before and after treatment were observed. HAMA score was reduced apparently after treatment as compared with that before treatment in two groups (all P < 0.01). The improvements of the total HAMA scores in 2, 4 and 6 weeks of treatment in the acupuncture group were superior obviously to those in the clonazepam group (all P < 0.05). After treatment, the activity of brain waves was improved remarkably, manifested as reducing of wave a frequency, increasing of wave alpha rhythm and reducing of wave theta (all P < 0.05). The efficacy was similar in comparison between the two groups (all P > 0.05). Acupuncture at the twelve meridians acupoints achieves the superior and quick effect on general anxiety disorder as compared with clonazepam and the efficacy mechanism is related to the improvements of brain waves in the patients. Source


Brutsaert W.,Cornell University | Hiyama T.,Humanity
Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres | Year: 2012

Permafrost has been reported to be degrading at increasing rates over wide areas in northern regions of Eurasia and North America; the evidence has come mainly from in situ observations in the soil profile, which have limited spatial and invariably limited temporal coverage. Herein three methods are proposed to relate low river flows (or base flows) during the open water season with the rate of change of the active groundwater layer thickness resulting from permafrost thawing at the scale of the upstream river basin. As an example, the methods are tested with data from four gaging stations within the Lena River basin in eastern Siberia, one in the Upper Lena basin, and three in two of its tributaries, namely the Olyokma and the Aldan basins. The different results are mutually consistent and suggest that over the 1950-2008 period the active layer thickness has been increasing at average rates roughly of the order of 0.3 to 1 cm a-1 in the areas with discontinuous permafrost and at average rates about half as large in colder more eastern areas with continuous permafrost. These rates have not been steady but have been increasing; thus it appears that in the earlier years over the period 1950-1970, some large regions have not been undergoing active layer thickness increases and perhaps even decreases, whereas from the 1990s onward vast areas have experienced larger average layer thickness increases, especially those with continuous permafrost. © 2012. American Geophysical Union. All Rights Reserved. Source

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