Humanitas Cancer Center

Rozzano, Italy

Humanitas Cancer Center

Rozzano, Italy
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Davies K.D.,Aurora University | Le A.T.,Aurora University | Theodoro M.F.,Aurora University | Skokan M.C.,Aurora University | And 12 more authors.
Clinical Cancer Research | Year: 2012

Purpose: Oncogenic gene fusions involving the 3′ region of ROS1 kinase have been identified in various human cancers. In this study, we sought to characterize ROS1 fusion genes in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and establish the fusion proteins as drug targets. Experimental Design: An NSCLC tissue microarray (TMA) panel containing 447 samples was screened for ROS1 rearrangement by FISH. This assay was also used to screen patients with NSCLC. In positive samples, the identity of the fusion partner was determined through inverse PCR and reverse transcriptase PCR. In addition, the clinical efficacy of ROS1 inhibition was assessed by treating a ROS1-positive patient with crizotinib. The HCC78 cell line, which expresses the SLC34A2-ROS1 fusion, was treated with kinase inhibitors that have activity against ROS1. The effects of ROS1 inhibition on proliferation, cell-cycle progression, and cell signaling pathways were analyzed by MTS assay, flow cytometry, and Western blotting. Results: In the TMA panel, 5 of 428 (1.2%) evaluable samples were found to be positive for ROS1 rearrangement. In addition, 1 of 48 patients tested positive for rearrangement, and this patient showed tumor shrinkage upon treatment with crizotinib. The patient and one TMA sample displayed expression of the recently identified SDC4-ROS1fusion, whereas twoTMAsamples expressed theCD74-ROS1 fusion and two others expressed the SLC34A2-ROS1 fusion. In HCC78 cells, treatment with ROS1 inhibitors was antiproliferative and downregulated signaling pathways that are critical for growth and survival. Conclusions: ROS1 inhibition may be an effective treatment strategy for the subset of patients with NSCLC whose tumors express ROS1 fusion genes. Clin Cancer Res; 18(17); 4570-9. ©2012 AACR.

Petrini I.,U.S. National Cancer Institute | Wang Y.,U.S. National Cancer Institute | Zucali P.A.,Humanitas Cancer Center | Lee H.S.,U.S. National Cancer Institute | And 5 more authors.
Clinical Cancer Research | Year: 2013

Purposes: To determine whether the deregulation of genes relevant for normal thymus development can contribute to the biology of thymic epithelial tumors (TET). Experimental Design: Using array comparative genomic hybridization, we evaluated the copy number aberrations of genes regulating thymus development. The expression of genes most commonly involved in copy number aberrations was evaluated by immunohistochemistry and correlated with patients' outcome. Correlation between FOXC1 copy number loss and gene expression was determined in a confirmation cohort. Cell lines were used to test the role of FOXC1 in tumors. Results: Among 31 thymus development-related genes, PBX1 copy number gain and FOXC1 copy number loss were presented in 43.0% and 39.5% of the tumors, respectively. Immunohistochemistry on a series of 132 TETs, including those evaluated by comparative genomic hybridization, revealed a correlation between protein expression and copy number status only for FOXC1 but not for PBX1. Patients with FOXC1-negative tumors had a shorter time to progression and a trend for a shorter disease-related survival. The correlation between FOXC1 copy number loss and mRNA expression was confirmed in a separate cohort of 27 TETs. Ectopic FOXC1 expression attenuated anchorage-independent cell growth and cell migration in vitro. Conclusion: Our data support a tumor suppressor role of FOXC1 in TETs. ©2013 AACR.

Reichel J.,New York Medical College | Reichel J.,Tri Institutional Training Program in Computational Biology and Medicine | Chadburn A.,Northwestern University | Rubinstein P.G.,Rush University Medical Center | And 17 more authors.
Blood | Year: 2015

Classical Hodgkin lymphoma (cHL) is characterized by sparsely distributed Hodgkin and Reed-Sternberg (HRS) cells amid reactive host background, complicating the acquisition of neoplastic DNA without extensive background contamination. We overcame this limitation by using flow-sorted HRS and intratumor T cells and optimized low-input exome sequencing of 10 patient samples to reveal alterations in genes involved in antigen presentation, chromosome integrity, transcriptional regulation, and ubiquitination. ßoglobulin (B2M) is the most commonly altered gene in HRS cells, with 7 of 10 cases having inactivating mutations that lead to loss of major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC-I) expression. Enforced wild-type B2M expression in a cHL cell line restored MHC-I expression. In an extended cohort of 145 patients, the absence of B2Mprotein in the HRS cells was associated with lower stage of disease, younger age at diagnosis, and better overall and progression-free survival. B2M-deficient cases encompassed most of the nodular sclerosis subtype cases and only a minority of mixed cellularity cases, suggesting that B2M deficiency determines the tumor microenvironment and may define amajor subset of cHL that hasmore uniformclinical andmorphologic features. © 2015 by The American Society of Hematology.

Ricardi U.,University of Turin | Frezza G.,Bellaria Hospital | Filippi A.R.,University of Turin | Badellino S.,University of Turin | And 8 more authors.
Lung Cancer | Year: 2014

Objectives: Aim of this retrospective multicenter observational study was to provide data on outcomes and prognostic factors in patients affected with stage I histologically confirmed NSCLC treated with Stereotactic Ablative Radiotherapy (SABR, or Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy, SBRT) outside clinical trials. Materials and Methods: We analyzed a cohort of 196 patients with histological/cytological diagnosis of NSCLC. Median age at treatment was 75 years old; median tumor diameter was 2.48. cm, and median GTV 13.3. cc. One hundred fifty-five patients had stage IA disease (79.1%) and 41 patients stage IB disease (20.9%). Total doses ranged from 48 to 60. Gy in 3-8 fractions. Primary endpoints of the study were safety (acute and late toxicity) and efficacy (Local Control, Disease-Free Survival, Overall and Cancer-Specific Survival). Results: Median follow-up time was 30 months. The percentage of grade ≥2 pulmonary toxicity was 3%, and the 30 and 60 days mortality rate was 0%. Local Recurrence-Free Survival was 89.7% at 3 years. Fifty-nine patients (30.1%) had at least one failure (local and/or nodal and/or distant), with a Disease-Free Survival (DFS) rate at 3 years of 65.5%. Overall Survival (OS) and Cancer-Specific Survival (CSS) rates were 68% and 82.1% at 3 years, respectively. Median time to any recurrence was 15 months, while median overall survival time was 54 months. At multivariate analysis, stage IB was the only variable associated to a decrease in DFS, OS and CSS (HR 2.77, p= 0.006; HR 2.38, p= 0.009; HR 4.06, p≤. 0.001, respectively). A difference in survival according to stage was also evident at the log-rank test (p≤. 0.0001 for CSS and OS). Conclusion: The results of the present study support the routine use of SABR for stage I NSCLC in a daily practice environment. The only prognostic factor that has been confirmed by our analysis was tumor stage (IA vs. IB). © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

Santoro A.,Humanitas Cancer Center | Comandone A.,Gradenigo Hospital | Basso U.,Instituto Oncologico Veneto IOV IRCCS | Soto Parra H.,Azienda Ospedaliera Universitaria Policlinico Vittorio Emanuele | And 7 more authors.
Annals of Oncology | Year: 2013

Introduction: We investigated the activity and safety of sorafenib, a multitargeted tyrosine-kinase inhibitor, in patients with advanced soft tissue sarcomas (STS). Patients and methods: An open-label nonrandomised multicentre phase II study was conducted in advanced STS patients pre-treated with anthracycline-based chemotherapy. Patients received sorafenib 400 mg twice daily for 28 days. The primary end point was the progression-free survival (PFS) rate at 6 months. Toxicity was assessed. Clinical outcomes were evaluated in all histologies and in leiomyosarcoma (L) and angiovascular sarcomas (A). Results: Between November 2006 and January 2010, 101 patients (36 L, 19 A, and 46 others) were enrolled; 76 patients per-protocol (PP) and 100 per intention-to-treat (ITT) were assessable for the primary end point. In the PP analysis, 11 (14.5) achieved partial response and 25 (32.9) stable disease; 6-month PFS rates were all histologies, 34.5; L, 38.4; and A, 56.3. In the ITT analysis, 6-month PFS results were 27.1, 35, and 35.5 in all histologies, L, and A, respectively. When stratified by histology, we observed a better PFS favouring leiomyosarcoma versus other histologies (P 0.033). Treatment was well tolerated. Conclusions: Sorafenib appears to be a promising option in leiomyosarcoma patients. This finding warrants further evaluation in histology-driven trials. © The Author 2012.

Carbone A.,Instituto Nazionale Tumori | Gloghini A.,Instituto Nazionale Tumori | Santoro A.,Humanitas Cancer Center
Hematological Oncology | Year: 2012

The diagnosis of in situ follicular lymphoma (FL) is feasible when immunohistochemical characterization is carried out and genetic abnormalities are assessed. We usually use a selected diagnostic panel of antibodies (CD10, CD20, CD23, BCL2, BCL6, and Ki67) in lymph nodes with follicular hyperplasia only when we analyze an unexplained lymphadenopathy. Molecular studies, for example, fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis for t(14;18), are restricted to doubtful cases in which immunohistochemistry data are ambiguous. Immunohistochemically, the involved follicles show strongly positive staining for BCL2 and CD10. The BCL2+ cells are confined only to germinal centers and are not seen in the interfollicular region or elsewhere in the lymph node. The BCL2 staining in the abnormal follicles is notable for its high-level and uniform intensity. In situ FL may be associated with overt FL or with lymphomas other than FL or with other malignancies. The crucial point relies on distinguishing in situ FL arising in asymptomatic patients from cases with presence of lymphoma at the same or other sites. Other open questions remain on the frequency with which in situ FLs occur and the frequency of concomitant systemic disease. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Carbone A.,Instituto Nazionale Tumori | Gloghini A.,Instituto Nazionale Tumori | Castagna L.,Humanitas Cancer Center | Santoro A.,Humanitas Cancer Center | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Pathology | Year: 2015

Classical Hodgkin's lymphoma (cHL), a distinct disease entity with characteristic clinical and pathological features, accounts for approximately 10% of all malignant lymphomas. cHL can be considered a prototype model for how the tumour microenvironment influences cancer pathogenesis. Cellular components of the cHL microenvironment express molecules involved in cancer cell growth and survival, such as CD30L or CD40L. Moreover, several signal transduction pathways that are critical for the proliferation and survival of neoplastic Hodgkin Reed-Sternberg (HRS) cells, including NF-κB, JAK-STAT, PI3K-AkT and ERK, are deregulated in cHL. Although most patients can be cured with modern treatment strategies, approximately a quarter experience either primary or secondary chemorefractoriness or disease relapse, thus requiring novel treatments. Preclinical and clinical evidence has elucidated a complex crosstalk between malignant HRS cells and the reactive cells of the microenvironment, which suggests that novel therapeutic approaches capable of targeting HRS cells along with reactive cells might overcome chemorefractoriness. In the near future, these novel therapies will also be tested in chemosensitive patients, to reduce the long-term toxicity of chemo-radiotherapy. Copyright © 2015 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Ceresoli G.L.,Thoracic and GU Oncology Unit | Zucali P.A.,Humanitas Cancer Center
Expert Opinion on Investigational Drugs | Year: 2012

Introduction: Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is a disease with a dismal prognosis. Currently available treatments have modest results. Therefore, new agents and new treatment strategies are eagerly awaited by patients and clinicians. Preclinical and clinical studies have shown that angiogenesis plays a very important role in MPM. Therefore, a great hope has been placed in the use of anti-angiogenic agents in this disease. Areas covered: Studies regarding anti-angiogenic treatments in MPM with bevacizumab, tyrosine-kinase inhibitors (TKIs) and other agents were critically analyzed, with an overview of ongoing trials and future perspectives, including research on biomarkers. Expert opinion: The clinical use of angiogenesis inhibitors in MPM patients has resulted more challenging than anticipated. The intrinsic complexity of neo-angiogenesis, and its redundant regulatory mechanisms, suggests that multiple and different biomarkers are needed to predict efficacy of anti-angiogenic agents and to monitor their biological and therapeutic effects. The growing understanding of the molecular alterations and key pathways that underlie the resistance to VEGF inhibitors will allow to design studies of the combination of agents targeting these pathways with anti-VEGF therapies. Only a tight integration of preclinical and clinical studies will allow to achieve a real progress in MPM patients with this therapeutic strategy. © 2012 Informa UK, Ltd.

Ceresoli G.L.,Cliniche Humanitas Gavazzeni | Zucali P.A.,Humanitas Cancer Center
Cancer Treatment Reviews | Year: 2015

Therapeutic options for malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) are limited. Most patients are treated with chemotherapy during the course of their disease. The combination of pemetrexed with a platinum compound is the standard of care in the first-line setting, while no established treatment exists in the second and beyond-line setting. Vinca alkaloids are chemotherapeutic agents that have demonstrated clinical efficacy both as single agents and in combination in a broad spectrum of cancers, including MPM. Vinorelbine has shown activity in MPM patients as neoadiuvant therapy, first-line treatment, and in the second and third-line setting. Vinflunine is a derivative of vinorelbine that has been studied in MPM as first-line agent. While the role of vinca alkaloids in the first-line treatment of MPM seems marginal, treatment with vinorelbine remains a reasonable option for pemetrexed-pretreated patients in clinical practice, based on an acceptable rate of stable disease, confirmed by several trials. Ongoing studies on predictive biomarkers for vinorelbine will hopefully be able to individualize treatment, increasing response rates and survival outcomes. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.

Personeni N.,Humanitas Cancer Center | Bozzarelli S.,Humanitas Cancer Center | Pressiani T.,Humanitas Cancer Center | Rimassa L.,Humanitas Cancer Center | And 6 more authors.
Journal of Hepatology | Year: 2012

Background & Aims: Tumor shrinkage has been considered a fundamental surrogate efficacy measure for new cancer treatments. However, in patients treated with sorafenib for advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), tumor shrinkage rarely accompanies increased survival, thereby questioning the prognostic value of imaging-based Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST). We investigated the prognostic usefulness of a decrease in serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) and compared it to RECIST. Methods: In HCC patients treated with sorafenib with baseline AFP >20 ng/ml, AFP response was defined as a >20% decrease in AFP during 8 weeks of treatment. Patients were also assessed by RECIST and were categorized as having radiologically proven progressive disease or disease control (consisting of complete or partial responses and stable disease). Comparisons of survival by RECIST and AFP response were corrected for guarantee-time bias by the landmark method. Results: We evaluated 85 patients for AFP response, among them, 82 were also evaluated by RECIST. In the analysis of AFP response, 32 out of 85 patients (37.6%) were responders, whereas 58 out of 82 patients (70.7%) achieved disease control. In landmark analysis, the hazard ratios (HR) for survival according to AFP response and disease control were 0.59 (p = 0.040) and 1.03 (p = 0.913), respectively. In multivariate analysis, only AFP response (HR = 0.52; p = 0.009) and Cancer of the Liver Italian Program dichotomized stage (HR = 0.42; p = 0.002) were prognostic factors of survival. Conclusions: Assessment of AFP response may be considered as an alternative to RECIST to capture sorafenib activity in HCC. © 2012 European Association for the Study of the Liver. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

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