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Pretoria, South Africa

Peltzer K.,Madidol University | Peltzer K.,University of Limpopo | Peltzer K.,Human science Research Council HSRC | Pengpid S.,Madidol University | Pengpid S.,University of Limpopo
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health | Year: 2014

The aim of this study was to investigate oral and hand hygiene behaviour and risk factors among 13 to 15 year-old in-school adolescents in four Southeast Asian countries. Data were collected by self-reported questionnaire from nationally representative samples (total 13,824) of school children aged 13 to 15 years in India, Indonesia, Myanmar and Thailand. Results indicate that overall, 22.4% of school children reported sub-optimal oral hygiene ( Source


Peltzer K.,Madidol University | Peltzer K.,University of Limpopo | Peltzer K.,Human science Research Council HSRC | Pengpid S.,Madidol University | Pengpid S.,University of Limpopo
African Health Sciences | Year: 2015

Background: The aim of this study was to investigate contraceptive non-use and associated factors (socio-demographics, sexual behaviour, internal assets and mental health) among undergraduate university students in 22 countries. Methods: Using anonymous questionnaires, data was collected from 16979 undergraduate university students (mean age 20.8, SD=2.8) from 23 universities in 22 countries. Results: Of the total sample of 16979 undergraduate university students, 7032 (41.9%) reported to have been sexually active in the past 12 months. Of those who had been sexually active, 42.6% reported never (42.7% among male and 42.6% among female students) using contraceptives in the past 12 months. In multivariate regression analysis, among both men and women, younger age, religious affiliation (Hindu; and among women only being Muslim), intrinsic religiosity, and sexually protective behaviour were associated with contraceptive non-use. Lack of internal assets (among men, low life satisfaction and lack of personal control, and among women low personal mastery); among women not having depressive symptoms and among men having PTSD symptoms were associated with contraceptive non-use. Conclusion: Low contraceptive use was found and several factors identified as associated with contraceptive non-use may help guide intervention efforts. © 2015, Makerere University, Medical School. All rights reserved. Source


Peltzer K.,Mahidol University | Peltzer K.,University of Limpopo | Peltzer K.,Human science Research Council HSRC | Pengpid S.,Mahidol University | Pengpid S.,University of Limpopo
Sleep and Breathing | Year: 2015

Background: The aim of this study is to estimate the prevalence of nocturnal sleeping problems and its associated factors among university students in mainly low- and middle-income countries.Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted with 20,222 undergraduate university students (mean age, 20.8; SD = 2. 8) from 27 universities in 26 countries across Asia, Africa and the Americas.Results: Overall, 10.4 % reported severe or extreme nocturnal sleeping problems (male, 10.2 %; female, 10.5 %) in the past month. Noctural sleeping problems differed by country, from 32.9 % in Indonesia to 3.0 % in Thailand among Asian countries, from 13.7 % in Mauritius to 7.5 % in South Africa, and from 11.8 % in Jamaica to 6.1 % in Columbia in the Americas. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, coming from a poor family background, staying off campus (on their own or with parents or guardians), stress (history of child sexual abuse), poor mental health (depression and PTSD symptoms), health risk behaviour (tobacco use, heavy internet use, gambling, skipping breakfast and having sustained an injury), lack of social support and poor academic performance were associated with nocturnal sleeping problems.Conclusions: A significant prevalence of past-month nocturnal sleeping problems was found. Potential factors associated with the risk of reporting sleeping complaints were identified, which may assist in prevention strategies to promote a better quality of sleep. © 2014, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. Source


Peltzer K.,Mahidol University | Peltzer K.,University of Limpopo | Peltzer K.,Human science Research Council HSRC | Pengpid S.,Mahidol University | Pengpid S.,University of Limpopo
International Journal of Public Health | Year: 2014

Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of fruits and vegetable consumption and associated factors among university students from 26 low, middle and high income countries.Methods: Using anonymous questionnaires, data were collected in a cross-sectional survey from 17,789 undergraduate university students (mean age 20.8, SD = 2.8) from 27 universities in 26 countries across Asia, Africa and the Americas.Results: Overall, 82.8 % of the university students consumed less than the recommended five servings of fruits and/or vegetables. The mean fruit and vegetable consumption varied by country, ranging from ≤2.5 mean daily servings in Jamaica, Philippines and Barbados to ≥3.9 mean daily servings in Mauritius, Tunisia and Ivory Coast. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, sociodemographic factors, psychosocial factors, and behavioural factors (inadequate dietary behaviours, binge drinking and physical inactivity) were associated with low prevalence of fruit and vegetable intake.Conclusions: Findings stress the need for intervention programmes aiming at increased consumption of fruit and vegetables considering the identified sociodemographic, psychosocial and behavioural risk factors. © 2014, Swiss School of Public Health. Source


The capacity of countries with high HIV and AIDS prevalence to provide antiretroviral treatment and care for all people who need support remains a public health challenge. In Lesotho, there are improvements in this area but the high proportion of people who need ART yet they do not receive treatment suggests that many HIV-infected people continue to depend on medicines that treat opportunistic infections. The objective of the article is to explore caregivers' experiences with diagnostic procedures and outcomes, prescriptions and treatment outcomes when ARVs were unavailable. A phenomenological design using in-depth face-to-face interviews was used to obtain the experiences of 21 family caregivers about caregiving, including access to and use of medical treatments. Caregivers' experiences indicate that most of the consulted health professionals provided vague and inconsistent diagnoses while the medication they prescribed failed to treat most of the symptoms. Unavailability of medicines that control pain and symptoms effectively continues to be a prominent feature of HIV and AIDS home-based caregiving in Lesotho. It is recommended that health professionals should facilitate disclosure of HIV diagnosis to family caregivers to assist them to understand unstable treatment outcomes; and policy makers should strengthen home-based care by developing policies that integrate palliative care into HIV and AIDS care. Source

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