Human science Research Council HSRC

Pretoria, South Africa

Human science Research Council HSRC

Pretoria, South Africa
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Ike C.U.,Stellenbosch University | Jacobs P.T.,Human science Research Council HSRC | Kelly C.,Stellenbosch University
Development in Practice | Year: 2017

This study used household data from Taraba State, Nigeria, to explore the advantages of using a multidimensional approach to measure food and nutrition insecurity. Adaptations of three popular food security indicators were combined in a single household questionnaire to test how well the Household Food Insecurity Access Scale (HFIAS), the Dietary Diversity Score (DDS), and the Coping Strategies Index (CSI) complement each other. Sixty-nine per cent of households in the sample were classified as extremely food insecure, which means they are likely to resort to intensive but erosive coping strategies and lower dietary diversity. The three indicators powerfully complemented each other. This multidimensional food security measurement framework provided a more nuanced picture of the depth and breadth of food insecurity for local government areas in Taraba State. This approach can help Nigerian policy authorities overcome the information deficits that impede effective food and nutrition assistance interventions. © 2017 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group.


Peltzer K.,Human science Research Council HSRC | Peltzer K.,University of Limpopo | Peltzer K.,Madidol University | Pengpid S.,University of Limpopo | And 2 more authors.
International Journal of Adolescent Medicine and Health | Year: 2014

The Internet provides significant benefits for learning about the world, but excessive Internet use can lead to negative outcomes. The aim of this study was to determine the associations between heavy Internet use and health-promoting behaviour, health risk behaviour and health outcomes among university students. The sample included 860 undergraduate university students chosen at random from Mae Fah Luang University in Thailand. Of the participants, 27.3% were male and and 72.7% were female in the age range of 18-25 years (M age = 20.1 years, SD = 1.3). Overall, students spent on average 5.3 h (SD = 2.6) per day on the internet, and 35.3% engaged in heavy internet use (6 or more hours per day). In multivariate logistic regression adjusting for sociodemographics, lack of dental check-ups, three health risk behaviours (sedentary lifestyle, illicit drug use and gambling) and three health outcomes [being underweight, overweight or obese and having screened positive for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)] were found to be associated with heavy Internet use. The results from this study may support the importance of developing early protective and preventive actions against problematic Internet use to promote university student health. © 2014 by Walter de Gruyter Berlin/Boston.


Peltzer K.,Mahidol University | Peltzer K.,University of Limpopo | Peltzer K.,Human science Research Council HSRC | Pengpid S.,Mahidol University | Pengpid S.,University of Limpopo
Sleep and Breathing | Year: 2015

Background: The aim of this study is to estimate the prevalence of nocturnal sleeping problems and its associated factors among university students in mainly low- and middle-income countries.Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted with 20,222 undergraduate university students (mean age, 20.8; SD = 2. 8) from 27 universities in 26 countries across Asia, Africa and the Americas.Results: Overall, 10.4 % reported severe or extreme nocturnal sleeping problems (male, 10.2 %; female, 10.5 %) in the past month. Noctural sleeping problems differed by country, from 32.9 % in Indonesia to 3.0 % in Thailand among Asian countries, from 13.7 % in Mauritius to 7.5 % in South Africa, and from 11.8 % in Jamaica to 6.1 % in Columbia in the Americas. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, coming from a poor family background, staying off campus (on their own or with parents or guardians), stress (history of child sexual abuse), poor mental health (depression and PTSD symptoms), health risk behaviour (tobacco use, heavy internet use, gambling, skipping breakfast and having sustained an injury), lack of social support and poor academic performance were associated with nocturnal sleeping problems.Conclusions: A significant prevalence of past-month nocturnal sleeping problems was found. Potential factors associated with the risk of reporting sleeping complaints were identified, which may assist in prevention strategies to promote a better quality of sleep. © 2014, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.


Peltzer K.,Madidol University | Peltzer K.,University of Limpopo | Peltzer K.,Human science Research Council HSRC | Pengpid S.,Madidol University | Pengpid S.,University of Limpopo
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health | Year: 2014

The aim of this study was to investigate oral and hand hygiene behaviour and risk factors among 13 to 15 year-old in-school adolescents in four Southeast Asian countries. Data were collected by self-reported questionnaire from nationally representative samples (total 13,824) of school children aged 13 to 15 years in India, Indonesia, Myanmar and Thailand. Results indicate that overall, 22.4% of school children reported sub-optimal oral hygiene (


Peltzer K.,Madidol University | Peltzer K.,University of Limpopo | Peltzer K.,Human science Research Council HSRC | Pengpid S.,Madidol University | Pengpid S.,University of Limpopo
African Health Sciences | Year: 2015

Background: The aim of this study was to investigate contraceptive non-use and associated factors (socio-demographics, sexual behaviour, internal assets and mental health) among undergraduate university students in 22 countries. Methods: Using anonymous questionnaires, data was collected from 16979 undergraduate university students (mean age 20.8, SD=2.8) from 23 universities in 22 countries. Results: Of the total sample of 16979 undergraduate university students, 7032 (41.9%) reported to have been sexually active in the past 12 months. Of those who had been sexually active, 42.6% reported never (42.7% among male and 42.6% among female students) using contraceptives in the past 12 months. In multivariate regression analysis, among both men and women, younger age, religious affiliation (Hindu; and among women only being Muslim), intrinsic religiosity, and sexually protective behaviour were associated with contraceptive non-use. Lack of internal assets (among men, low life satisfaction and lack of personal control, and among women low personal mastery); among women not having depressive symptoms and among men having PTSD symptoms were associated with contraceptive non-use. Conclusion: Low contraceptive use was found and several factors identified as associated with contraceptive non-use may help guide intervention efforts. © 2015, Makerere University, Medical School. All rights reserved.


Peltzer K.K.,Human science Research Council HSRC | Peltzer K.K.,University of Limpopo | Naidoo P.P.,Human science Research Council HSRC | Naidoo P.P.,University of the Western Cape | And 2 more authors.
BMC Public Health | Year: 2011

Background: In 2008 the World Health Organization (WHO) reported that South Africa had the highest tuberculosis (TB) incidence in the world. This high incidence rate is linked to a number of factors, including HIV co-infection and alcohol use disorders. The diagnosis and treatment package for TB and HIV co-infection is relatively well established in South Africa. However, because alcohol use disorders may present more insidiously, making it difficult to diagnose, those patients with active TB and misusing alcohol are not easily cured from TB. With this in mind, the primary purpose of this cluster randomized controlled trial is to provide screening for alcohol misuse and to test the efficacy of brief interventions in reducing alcohol intake in those patients with active TB found to be misusing alcohol in primary health care clinics in three provinces in South Africa. Methods/Design. Within each of the three selected health districts with the highest TB burden in South Africa, 14 primary health care clinics with the highest TB caseloads will be selected. Those agreeing to participate will be stratified according to TB treatment caseload and the type of facility (clinic or community health centre). Within strata from 14 primary care facilities, 7 will be randomly selected into intervention and 7 to control study clinics (42 clinics, 21 intervention clinics and 21 control clinics). At the clinic level systematic sampling will be used to recruit newly diagnosed TB patients. Those consenting will be screened for alcohol misuse using the AUDIT. Patients who screen positive for alcohol misuse over a 6-month period will be given either a brief intervention based on the Information-Motivation-Behavioural Skills (IMB) Model or an alcohol use health education leaflet. A total sample size of 520 is expected. Discussion. The trial will evaluate the impact of alcohol screening and brief interventions for patients with active TB in primary care settings in South Africa. The findings will impact public health and will enable the health ministry to formulate policy related to comprehensive treatment for TB and alcohol misuse, which will result in reduction in alcohol use and ultimately improve the TB cure rates. © 2011 Peltzer et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


Peltzer K.,Mahidol University | Peltzer K.,University of Limpopo | Peltzer K.,Human science Research Council HSRC | Pengpid S.,Mahidol University | Pengpid S.,University of Limpopo
International Journal of Public Health | Year: 2014

Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of fruits and vegetable consumption and associated factors among university students from 26 low, middle and high income countries.Methods: Using anonymous questionnaires, data were collected in a cross-sectional survey from 17,789 undergraduate university students (mean age 20.8, SD = 2.8) from 27 universities in 26 countries across Asia, Africa and the Americas.Results: Overall, 82.8 % of the university students consumed less than the recommended five servings of fruits and/or vegetables. The mean fruit and vegetable consumption varied by country, ranging from ≤2.5 mean daily servings in Jamaica, Philippines and Barbados to ≥3.9 mean daily servings in Mauritius, Tunisia and Ivory Coast. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, sociodemographic factors, psychosocial factors, and behavioural factors (inadequate dietary behaviours, binge drinking and physical inactivity) were associated with low prevalence of fruit and vegetable intake.Conclusions: Findings stress the need for intervention programmes aiming at increased consumption of fruit and vegetables considering the identified sociodemographic, psychosocial and behavioural risk factors. © 2014, Swiss School of Public Health.


Pengpid S.,University of Limpopo | Pengpid S.,Mahidol University | Peltzer K.,Mahidol University | Peltzer K.,University of Limpopo | And 3 more authors.
BMC Public Health | Year: 2013

Background: High prevalence rates of hazardous and harmful alcohol use have been found in a hospital outpatient setting in South Africa. Hospital settings are a particularly valuable point of contact for the delivery of brief interventions because of the large access to patient populations each year. With this in mind, the primary purpose of this randomized controlled trial is to provide screening for alcohol misuse and to test the effectiveness of brief interventions in reducing alcohol intake among hospital outpatients in South Africa. Methods. The study design for this effectiveness study is a randomized controlled trial with 6- and 12-month follow-ups to examine the effects of a brief alcohol intervention to reduce alcohol use by hazardous or harmful drinkers in a hospital setting. Outpatients were screened for alcohol problems, and those identified as hazardous or harmful drinkers were randomized into an experimental or control group. The experimental group received one brief counselling session on alcohol risk reduction, while the control group received a health education leaflet. Results: Of the 1419 screened for alcohol misuse who agreed to participate in the trial 392 (27.6%) screened positive for hazardous or harmful use on the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT) (score 7/8-19) and 51 (3.6%) had an AUDIT score of 20 or more. Among the 282 (72%) hospital outpatients who also attended the 12-month follow-up session, the time effects on the AUDIT scores were significant [F (1,195 = 7.72), P < 0.01] but the intervention effect on the AUDIT score was statistically not significant [F (1,194 = 0.06), P < 0.804]. Conclusion: Given the lack of difference in outcome between control and intervention group, alcohol screening and the provision of an alcohol health education leaflet may in itself cause reduction in drinking. Trial registration. PACTR201110000319392. © 2013 Pengpid et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


Manganye B.S.,University of Venda | Maluleke T.X.,Human science Research Council HSRC | Lebese R.T.,University of Venda
African Journal of AIDS Research | Year: 2013

The aim of the study was to determine the views of professional nurses on the manifestations of HIV and AIDS stigma and discrimination and their influence on the quality of care rendered to people living with HIV and AIDS in three rural hospitals of Limpopo province, South Africa. The study was qualitative, exploratory, descriptive and contextual in nature. The population included all professional nurses registered with the South African Nursing Council who were working with confirmed HIV-positive patients in the three hospitals and had received specialised training in voluntary counselling and testing (VCT), antiretrovirals (ARV), prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) and couple counselling. A purposive sampling method was used to select both the wards and participants, based on set criteria. A total of 9 wards (6 adult medical and 3 maternity) and 37 participants were selected. Focus group discussions and semi-structured and key informant interviews were conducted. Data were analysed using a combination of data analysis guidelines from different sources. Results revealed that professional nurses were aware of the existence of HIV and AIDS stigma and discrimination in their wards and regarded these as bad and improper care of HIV-positive patients. Behaviour included leaving care of HIV patients to junior members of staff with limited skills and knowledge of HIV and AIDS; showing HIV-positive patients that their disease was dangerous and contagious; judgmental behaviour towards and stereotyping of HIV-positive patients; and regarding patients with HIV and AIDS as uncooperative and problematic in the wards. Copyright © NISC (Pty) Ltd.


The capacity of countries with high HIV and AIDS prevalence to provide antiretroviral treatment and care for all people who need support remains a public health challenge. In Lesotho, there are improvements in this area but the high proportion of people who need ART yet they do not receive treatment suggests that many HIV-infected people continue to depend on medicines that treat opportunistic infections. The objective of the article is to explore caregivers' experiences with diagnostic procedures and outcomes, prescriptions and treatment outcomes when ARVs were unavailable. A phenomenological design using in-depth face-to-face interviews was used to obtain the experiences of 21 family caregivers about caregiving, including access to and use of medical treatments. Caregivers' experiences indicate that most of the consulted health professionals provided vague and inconsistent diagnoses while the medication they prescribed failed to treat most of the symptoms. Unavailability of medicines that control pain and symptoms effectively continues to be a prominent feature of HIV and AIDS home-based caregiving in Lesotho. It is recommended that health professionals should facilitate disclosure of HIV diagnosis to family caregivers to assist them to understand unstable treatment outcomes; and policy makers should strengthen home-based care by developing policies that integrate palliative care into HIV and AIDS care.

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