Peltzer K.,Human science Research Council
Cardiovascular journal of Africa | Year: 2013
Older adults are disproportionately affected by hypertension, which is an established risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Little attention has been focused on hypertension and associated factors among older adults in Africa. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the prevalence and associated factors of hypertension in a national sample of older South Africans who participated in the Study of Global Ageing and Adults' Health (SAGE) in 2008. In 2008 we conducted a national, population-based, cross-sectional study of a sample of 3 840 subjects aged 50 years or older in South Africa. The questionnaire included socio-demographic characteristics, health variables, and anthropometric and blood pressure measurements. The prevalence of hypertension in the sample population was 77.3% (male 74.4%, female 79.6%). The rates of awareness, treatment and control among the hypertensive participants were 38.1, 32.7 and 17.1%, respectively. The results of multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that the prevalence of hypertension was associated with being in the Coloured population group, having had a stroke, being overweight or obese and having had five or more out-patients care visits in the past 12 months. Hypertension was inversely associated with current alcohol use. This study revealed high rates of hypertension among older adults (50 years and more) in South Africa, which puts them at risk for cardiovascular disease. The percentages of hypertensive subjects who were aware, treated and controlled were very low. These data underscore the urgent need to strengthen the public health education and blood pressure-monitoring systems to better manage hypertension among older adults in South Africa.
Peltzer K.,Human science Research Council
Global health action | Year: 2012
Numerous studies support the protective effect of high fruit and vegetable (FV) consumption on chronic disease risk, mainly against cancer and cardiovascular diseases. Compared with younger adults, older people experience additional health, social, and environmental conditions that affect dietary intake. To identify those additional dimensions and examine them in association with FV intake, data on 3,840 participants in the Study of Global Ageing and Adults Health (SAGE) in South Africa were analyzed. We conducted a national population-based cross-sectional study in 2008 with a sample of 3,840 participants, aged 50 years or older, in South Africa. The questionnaire included questions on socio-demographic characteristics, health variables, anthropometry, and blood pressure measurements. Multivariable regression analysis was performed to assess the associations between socio-demographic factors, health variables, and inadequate FV consumption. Overall prevalence rates of insufficient FV intake were 68.5%, 64.8% among men and 71.4% among women, with a mean intake of 4.0 servings of FV among older adults (50 years and older). In multivariable analysis, coming from the Black African or Colored population group, lower educational level and daily tobacco use were associated with inadequate FV intake. The amount of fruit and vegetables (FVs) consumed by older South African participants was considerably lower than current recommendations (daily intake of at least five servings; 400 g). Public education and campaigns on adequate consumption of FVs should be promoted targeting lower educated and Black African and Colored population groups.
Peltzer K.,Human science Research Council |
Peltzer K.,University of the Free State
Acta Paediatrica, International Journal of Paediatrics | Year: 2010
Richter L.M.,Human science Research Council
Journal of the International AIDS Society | Year: 2012
Virtual prevention of HIV transmission from parents to children is possible. This is cause for hope and renewed energy for prevention in general. The Global Plan is the most concerted and ambitious plan to date to protect children and to promote their care. But the inspiring and much appreciated global targets cannot be achieved, nor will they be realized in spirit in addition to form, without joint action between health services, affected women, their partners, families and communities and the wider society. In turn, this engagement is only possible under enabling political, legal, material and social conditions. Much has already been achieved, and community engagement can everywhere be seen in efforts to increase demand, to supply services and to create and improve enabling environments. Some of these initiatives are highly organized and expansive, with demonstrated success. Others are local but essential adjuncts to health services. The nature of this engagement varies because the challenges are different across countries and parts of countries. To be sustained and effective, community action must simultaneously be inclusive and supportive for those people who are affected, it must be appreciated and assigned a place within the broad systemic response, and it must promote and defend social justice. © 2012 Richter LM; licensee International AIDS Society. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Mabaso M.L.H.,Human science Research Council |
Ndlovu N.C.,Malaria Research Programme
Public Health | Year: 2012
Objectives: To obtain a better understanding of existing research evidence towards the development of climate-driven malaria early warning systems (MEWS) through critical review of published literature in order to identify challenges and opportunities for future research. Study Design: Literature review. Methods: A comprehensive search of English literature published between 1990 and 2009 was conducted using the electronic bibliographic database, PubMed. Only studies that explored the associations between environmental and meteorological covariates, El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and malaria as the basis for developing, testing or implementing MEWS were considered. Results: In total, 35 relevant studies revealed that the development of functional climate-based MEWS remains a challenge, partly due to the complex web of causality and partly due to the use of imprecise malaria data, spatially and temporally varying covariate data, and different analytical approaches with divergent underlying assumptions. Nevertheless, high resolution spatial and temporal data, innovative analytical tools, and new and automated approaches for early warning and the development of operational MEWS. Conclusions: Future research should exploit these opportunities and incorporate the various aspects of MEWS for functional epidemic forecasting systems to be realized. © 2012 The Royal Society for Public Health.