Human Oncology and Pathogenesis Program

Human, United States

Human Oncology and Pathogenesis Program

Human, United States
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Venneti S.,University of Michigan | Dunphy M.P.,Sloan Kettering Cancer Center | Zhang H.,Molecular Pharmacology and Chemistry Program | Pitter K.L.,Cancer Biology and Genetics Program | And 16 more authors.
Science Translational Medicine | Year: 2015

Glucose and glutamine are the two principal nutrients that cancer cells use to proliferate and survive. Many cancers show altered glucose metabolism,which constitutes the basis for in vivo positron emission tomography (PET) imaging with 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG). However, 18F-FDG is ineffective in evaluating gliomas because of high background uptake in the brain. Glutamine metabolism is also altered in many cancers, and we demonstrate that PET imaging in vivo with the glutamine analog 4-18F-(2S,4R)-fluoroglutamine (18F-FGln) shows high uptake in gliomas but low background brain uptake, facilitating clear tumor delineation. Chemo/radiation therapy reduced 18F-FGln tumor avidity, corresponding with decreased tumor burden. 18F-FGln uptake was not observed in animals with a permeable blood-brain barrier or neuroinflammation. We translated these findings to human subjects, where 18F-FGln showed high tumor/background ratios with minimal uptake in the surrounding brain in human glioma patients with progressive disease. These data suggest that 18F-FGln is avidly taken up by gliomas, can be used to assess metabolic nutrient uptake in gliomas in vivo, and may serve as a valuable tool in the clinical management of gliomas. Copyright © 2015 by the American Association for the Advancement of Science.

Scher H.I.,Genitourinary Oncology Service | Anand A.,Genitourinary Oncology Service | Rathkopf D.,Genitourinary Oncology Service | Shelkey J.,Genitourinary Oncology Service | And 15 more authors.
The Lancet | Year: 2010

Background MDV3100 is an androgen-receptor antagonist that blocks androgens from binding to the androgen receptor and prevents nuclear translocation and co-activator recruitment of the ligand-receptor complex. It also induces tumour cell apoptosis, and has no agonist activity. Because growth of castration-resistant prostate cancer is dependent on continued androgen-receptor signalling, we assessed the antitumour activity and safety of MDV3100 in men with this disease. Methods This phase 1-2 study was undertaken in fi ve US centres in 140 patients. Patients with progressive, metastatic, castration-resistant prostate cancer were enrolled in dose-escalation cohorts of three to six patients and given an oral daily starting dose of MDV3100 30 mg. The fi nal daily doses studied were 30 mg (n=3), 60 mg (27), 150 mg (28), 240 mg (29), 360 mg (28), 480 mg (22), and 600 mg (3). The primary objective was to identify the safety and tolerability profi le of MDV3100 and to establish the maximum tolerated dose. The trial is registered with, number NCT00510718. Findings We noted antitumour eff ects at all doses, including decreases in serum prostate-specifi c antigen of 50% or more in 78 (56%) patients, responses in soft tissue in 13 (22%) of 59 patients, stabilised bone disease in 61 (56%) of 109 patients, and conversion from unfavourable to favourable circulating tumour cell counts in 25 (49%) of the 51 patients. PET imaging of 22 patients to assess androgen-receptor blockade showed decreased18F-fl uoro-5α-dihydrotestosterone binding at doses from 60 mg to 480 mg per day (range 20-100%). The median time to progression was 47 weeks (95% CI 34-not reached) for radiological progression. The maximum tolerated dose for sustained treatment (>28 days) was 240 mg. The most common grade 3-4 adverse event was dose-dependent fatigue (16 [11%] patients), which generally resolved after dose reduction. Interpretation We recorded encouraging antitumour activity with MDV3100 in patients with castration-resistant prostate cancer. The results of this phase 1-2 trial validate in man preclinical studies implicating sustained androgenreceptor signalling as a driver in this disease. Funding Medivation, the Prostate Cancer Foundation, National Cancer Institute, the Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Doris Duke Charitable Foundation, and Department of Defense Prostate Cancer Clinical Trials Consortium.

Callahan M.K.,Sloan Kettering Cancer Center | Callahan M.K.,New York Medical College | Rampal R.,Sloan Kettering Cancer Center | Rampal R.,New York Medical College | And 19 more authors.
New England Journal of Medicine | Year: 2012

Vemurafenib, a selective RAF inhibitor, extends survival among patients with BRAF V600E-mutant melanoma. Vemurafenib inhibits ERK signaling in BRAF V600E-mutant cells but activates ERK signaling in BRAF wild-type cells. This paradoxical activation of ERK signaling is the mechanistic basis for the development of RAS-mutant squamous-cell skin cancers in patients treated with RAF inhibitors. We report the accelerated growth of a previously unsuspected RAS-mutant leukemia in a patient with melanoma who was receiving vemurafenib. Exposure to vemurafenib induced hyperactivation of ERK signaling and proliferation of the leukemic cell population, an effect that was reversed on drug withdrawal. Copyright © 2012 Massachusetts Medical Society.

Ramos P.,New York Medical College | Casu C.,New York Medical College | Gardenghi S.,New York Medical College | Breda L.,New York Medical College | And 12 more authors.
Nature Medicine | Year: 2013

Regulation of erythropoiesis is achieved by the integration of distinct signals. Among them, macrophages are emerging as erythropoietin-complementary regulators of erythroid development, particularly under stress conditions. We investigated the contribution of macrophages to physiological and pathological conditions of enhanced erythropoiesis. We used mouse models of induced anemia, polycythemia vera and β-thalassemia in which macrophages were chemically depleted. Our data indicate that macrophages contribute decisively to recovery from induced anemia, as well as the pathological progression of polycythemia vera and β-thalassemia, by modulating erythroid proliferation and differentiation. We validated these observations in primary human cultures, showing a direct impact of macrophages on the proliferation and enucleation of erythroblasts from healthy individuals and patients with polycythemia vera or β-thalassemia. The contribution of macrophages to stress and pathological erythropoiesis, which we have termed stress erythropoiesis macrophage-supporting activity, may have therapeutic implications. © 2013 Nature America, Inc. All rights reserved.

Pyonteck S.M.,Sloan Kettering Cancer Center | Akkari L.,Sloan Kettering Cancer Center | Schuhmacher A.J.,Sloan Kettering Cancer Center | Bowman R.L.,Sloan Kettering Cancer Center | And 21 more authors.
Nature Medicine | Year: 2013

Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) comprises several molecular subtypes, including proneural GBM. Most therapeutic approaches targeting glioma cells have failed. An alternative strategy is to target cells in the glioma microenvironment, such as tumor-associated macrophages and microglia (TAMs). Macrophages depend on colony stimulating factor-1 (CSF-1) for differentiation and survival. We used an inhibitor of the CSF-1 receptor (CSF-1R) to target TAMs in a mouse proneural GBM model, which significantly increased survival and regressed established tumors. CSF-1R blockade additionally slowed intracranial growth of patient-derived glioma xenografts. Surprisingly, TAMs were not depleted in treated mice. Instead, glioma-secreted factors, including granulocyte-macrophage CSF (GM-CSF) and interferon-γ (IFN-γ), facilitated TAM survival in the context of CSF-1R inhibition. Expression of alternatively activated M2 markers decreased in surviving TAMs, which is consistent with impaired tumor-promoting functions. These gene signatures were associated with enhanced survival in patients with proneural GBM. Our results identify TAMs as a promising therapeutic target for proneural gliomas and establish the translational potential of CSF-1R inhibition for GBM. © 2013 Nature America, Inc. All rights reserved.

Sanborn J.Z.,Five3 Genomics LLC | Sanborn J.Z.,University of California at Santa Cruz | Salama S.R.,University of California at Santa Cruz | Salama S.R.,Howard Hughes Medical Institute | And 8 more authors.
Cancer Research | Year: 2013

DNA sequencing offers a powerful tool in oncology based on the precise definition of structural rearrangements and copy number in tumor genomes. Here, we describe the development of methods to compute copy number and detect structural variants to locally reconstruct highly rearranged regions of the tumor genome with high precision from standard, short-read, paired-end sequencing datasets. We find that circular assemblies are the most parsimonious explanation for a set of highly amplified tumor regions in a subset of glioblastoma multiforme samples sequenced by The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) consortium, revealing evidence for double minute chromosomes in these tumors. Further, we find that some samples harbor multiple circular amplicons and, in some cases, further rearrangements occurred after the initial amplicon-generating event. Fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis offered an initial confirmation of the presence of double minute chromosomes. Gene content in these assemblies helps identify likely driver oncogenes for these amplicons. RNA-seq data available for one double minute chromosome offered additional support for our local tumor genome assemblies, and identified the birth of a novel exon made possible through rearranged sequences present in the double minute chromosomes. Our method was also useful for analysis of a larger set of glioblastoma multiforme tumors for which exome sequencing data are available, finding evidence for oncogenic double minute chromosomes in more than 20% of clinical specimens examined, a frequency consistent with previous estimates. © 2013 American Association for Cancer Research.

Wei E.Y.,Human Oncology and Pathogenesis Program | Hsieh J.J.,Sloan Kettering Cancer Center
Nature Reviews Urology | Year: 2015

Intratumoural heterogeneity in clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) complicates identification and validation of biomarkers and thwarts attempts to improve precision medicine. Efforts to depict intratumoural heterogeneity and to pinpoint strategies for disease control resulted in the creation of the trunk-branch model of mutational cancer evolution, which emphasizes targeting trunk mutations. However, most patients with ccRCC receiving current therapeutics that target these mutations, such as inhibitors of vascular endothelial growth factors, eventually develop resistance. A novel paradigm might improve depiction of cancer evolution and advise therapeutic selection: the river model is based on findings from multiregion sequencing in samples from exceptional responders to mTOR inhibitors. The accumulating data on genotypic and phenotypic convergence in renal cell carcinoma and other malignancies can be used to examine how a mutable river model might best describe clinically significant phenotype-convergent events that could guide effective cancer control. This model originates from studying exceptional responders and its generalizability awaits validation. © 2015 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

Meyer S.C.,Human Oncology and Pathogenesis Program | Keller M.D.,Human Oncology and Pathogenesis Program | Woods B.A.,Human Oncology and Pathogenesis Program | Lafave L.M.,Human Oncology and Pathogenesis Program | And 6 more authors.
Blood | Year: 2014

JAK inhibitor treatment is limited by the variable development of anemia and thrombocytopenia thought to be due to on-target JAK2 inhibition. We evaluated the impact of Jak2 deletion in platelets (PLTs) and megakaryocytes (MKs) on blood counts, stem/ progenitor cells, and Jak-Stat signaling. Pf4-Cre-mediated Jak2 deletion in PLTsandMKs did not compromise PLT formation but caused thrombocytosis, and resulted in expansion ofMKprogenitors and Lin2Sca11Kit1 cells. Serum thrombopoietin (TPO) wasmaintained at normal levels in Pf4-Cre-positive Jak2f/f mice, consistent with reduced internalization/ turnover by Jak2-deficient PLTs. These data demonstrate that Jak2 in terminal megakaryopoiesis is not required for PLT production, and that Jak2 loss in PLTs and MKs results in non-autonomous expansion of stem/progenitors and of MKs and PLTs via dysregulated TPO turnover. This suggests that the thrombocytopenia frequently seen with JAK inhibitor treatment is not due to JAK2 inhibition in PLTs and MKs, but rather due to JAK2 inhibition in stem/progenitor cells. (Blood. 2014;124(14):2280-2284). © 2014 by The American Society of Hematology.

Gild M.L.,Human Oncology and Pathogenesis Program | Landa I.,Human Oncology and Pathogenesis Program | Ryder M.,Human Oncology and Pathogenesis Program | Ghossein R.A.,Sloan Kettering Cancer Center | And 2 more authors.
Endocrine-Related Cancer | Year: 2013

Inhibitors of RET, a tyrosine kinase receptor encoded by a gene that is frequently mutated in medullary thyroid cancer, have emerged as promising novel therapies for the disease. Rapalogs and other mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitors are effective agents in patients with gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors, which share lineage properties with medullary thyroid carcinomas. The objective of this study was to investigate the contribution of mTOR activity to RET-induced signaling and cell growth and to establish whether growth suppression is enhanced by co-targeting RET and mTOR kinase activities. Treatment of the RET mutant cell lines TT, TPC-1, and MZ-CRC-1 with AST487, a RET kinase inhibitor, suppressed growth and showed profound and sustained inhibition of mTOR signaling, which was recapitulated by siRNA-mediated RET knockdown. Inhibition of mTOR with INK128, a dual mTORC1 and mTORC2 kinase inhibitor, also resulted in marked growth suppression to levels similar to those seen with RET blockade. Moreover, combined treatment with AST487 and INK128 at low concentrations suppressed growth and induced apoptosis. These data establish mTOR as a key mediator of RET-mediated cell growth in thyroid cancer cells and provide a rationale for combinatorial treatments in thyroid cancers with oncogenic RET mutations. © 2013 Society for Endocrinology.

Chen Y.,Sloan Kettering Cancer Center | Chi P.,Sloan Kettering Cancer Center | Rockowitz S.,Yeshiva University | Iaquinta P.J.,Human Oncology and Pathogenesis Program | And 10 more authors.
Nature Medicine | Year: 2013

Studies of ETS-mediated prostate oncogenesis have been hampered by a lack of suitable experimental systems. Here we describe a new conditional mouse model that shows robust, homogenous ERG expression throughout the prostate. When combined with homozygous Pten loss, the mice developed accelerated, highly penetrant invasive prostate cancer. In mouse prostate tissue, ERG markedly increased androgen receptor (AR) binding. Robust ERG-mediated transcriptional changes, observed only in the setting of Pten loss, included the restoration of AR transcriptional output and upregulation of genes involved in cell death, migration, inflammation and angiogenesis. Similarly, ETS variant 1 (ETV1) positively regulated the AR cistrome and transcriptional output in ETV1-translocated, PTEN-deficient human prostate cancer cells. In two large clinical cohorts, expression of ERG and ETV1 correlated with higher AR transcriptional output in PTEN-deficient prostate cancer specimens. We propose that ETS factors cause prostate-specific transformation by altering the AR cistrome, priming the prostate epithelium to respond to aberrant upstream signals such as PTEN loss. © 2013 Nature America, Inc. All rights reserved.

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