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Memon A.A.,University of Sindh | Memon N.,University of Sindh | Luthria D.L.,Human Nutrition Research Center | Pitafi A.A.,University of Karachi | Bhanger M.I.,University of Sindh
Polish Journal of Food and Nutrition Sciences | Year: 2012

Ber is a tropical fruit which grows from the tree species, Ziziphus mauritiana Lamk. The pericarp of this fruit is consumed either fresh or dried while its seeds are usually discarded as waste. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the antioxidant activity and phenolic content of the fruit, and to evaluate if any potential value-added phytochemicals can be extracted from seed waste. The edible portion of the fruit was extracted with 60% aqueous methanol by sonication and then assayed for total phenolic content, antioxidant activity, and individual phenolic compounds by HPLC-DAD. The seed oil extracted with n-hexane was assayed for fatty acid composition, sterols, and tocopherols content by GC-MS. The total phenolic content of the fresh fruit was 12.8 mg/g as gallic acid equivalent, with an antioxidant activity of 0.5 μmol/g as quercetin equivalent by Folin-Ciocalteu and DPPH assays respectively. Hydroxybenzoic acid, vanillin, ortho- and para-coumaric acid, epicatechin, quercetin, and naringenin were tentatively identified by matching retention time and UV spectra with those of commercial reference standards. GC-MS analysis of the TMS derivative of fruit extract showed the presence of following compounds: propanoic, hexanoic, heptanoic, octanoic, nonanoic, decanoic, dodecanoic, n-pentadecanoic, hexadecanoic, benzoic, and trihydroxybenzoic acids. In addition, D-fructose, galactofuranoside, gluconic acid, and β-sitosterol were also detected. In seed oil of ber, the fatty acids such as, hexanoic, octanoic, 7-octadecenoic, 9,12-octadecendoic, eicosanoic, 11-eicosenoic, and docosanoic acid with 7-octadecenoic acid, were found to make up 55% of total fatty acids. Squalene, γ-tocopherol and stigmasterol were identified as minor constituents in the unsaponifiable fraction of seed oil. Current study shows that ber fruit is a good source of healthy phytochemicals. © Copyright by Institute of Animal Reproduction and Food Research of the Polish Academy of Sciences. Source

Ubhi B.K.,University of Cambridge | Davenport P.W.,University of Cambridge | Welch M.,University of Cambridge | Riley J.,Glaxosmithkline | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Chromatography B: Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences | Year: 2013

A liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method was developed which, with sample preparation using a commercially available kit, allows rapid quantitation of 39 chloroformate-derivatised amino acids (AAs), polyamines (PAs) and dipeptides (DPs) in complex biological matrices. Lower limits of quantitation (LOQ) were 20-150. nM for putrescine, spermine, spermidine, cadaverine, agmatine, and below 5. μM for all analytes. Responses were linear for all analytes between 0.5 and 50. μM. Quantitative measurements of all 39 metabolites were achieved within a 15. min runtime. The method was evaluated with a Pseudomonas aeruginosa cell extract study (n=24) and a larger human urine study (n=308). Batch effects were observed in the urine study and an investigation of instrument and sample stability showed a wave-like pattern in the MS responses. Both the run order and inter-batch variation were successfully corrected by normalising to pooled urine quality control data. Thus, this method should be suitable for diverse biological matrices and for large as well as small sample sets. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. Source

Goossens G.H.,Maastricht University | Blaak E.E.,Maastricht University | Theunissen R.,Maastricht University | Duijvestijn A.M.,Maastricht University | And 5 more authors.
Molecular Immunology | Year: 2012

Recent studies in rodents indicate that the nucleotide-binding domain, leucine-rich-containing family, pyrin domain-containing-3 (NLRP3) inflammasome and a proinflammatory shift in the T cell population in adipose tissue (AT) contribute to AT inflammation and insulin resistance. We investigated: (1) the interplay between the NLRP3 inflammasome and T cell populations in abdominal subcutaneous AT in obese and lean humans in relation to AT inflammatory processes, and (2) involvement of the NLRP3 inflammasome and T cell populations in insulin resistance. Abdominal subcutaneous AT biopsies were collected in 10 obese men with impaired glucose tolerance and 9 lean normal glucose tolerant age-matched controls. AT gene expression of NLRP3 inflammasome-related genes and markers of T cell populations, chemoattraction, macrophage infiltration and other aspects of inflammation were examined. Furthermore, we examined systemic adaptive immune activation and insulin sensitivity (hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp). CASPASE-1 mRNA and the proportion of T h1 transcripts (TBX21/CD3e{open}) were significantly higher in AT from obese compared with lean subjects. CASPASE-1 expression and a relative increase in T h1 transcripts in AT were strongly associated with insulin resistance and impairments in glucose homeostasis. Gene expression of NLRP3, CASPASE-1, CD3e{open} (pan T cells), TBX21 (T h1 cells) and RORC (T h17 cells) was positively, whereas GATA3 (T h2 cells) was inversely correlated with AT inflammation. Our data suggest that NLRP3 inflammasome activation and a T h1 shift in the T cell population in AT of obese subjects is related to insulin resistance and impaired glucose metabolism, which may be explained by AT inflammatory processes. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Chater P.I.,Northumbria University | Wilcox M.,Northumbria University | Cherry P.,Northumbria University | Herford A.,Northumbria University | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Applied Phycology | Year: 2016

The effect of three Hebridean brown seaweeds on lipase activity was assessed using a turbidimetric lipase activity assay and an in vitro simulation of the upper digestive tract. The preparations of Ascophyllum nodosum, Fucus vesiculosus, and Pelvetia canaliculata were tested; whole seaweed homogenate, sodium carbonate extract, and ethanol extracts (pellet and supernatant were tested separately). All extracts showed significant inhibition of lipase, suggesting multiple bioactive agents, potentially including alginates, fucoidans, and polyphenols. Whole homogenate extract of F. vesiculosus was the most potent inhibitor of Lipase (IC50 = 0.119 mg mL-1), followed by ethanol supernatant (IC50 = 0.159 mg mL-1) while ethanol pellet and sodium carbonate extract showed relatively weaker inhibition (IC50 = 0.360 mg mL-1 and IC50 = 0.969 mg mL-1 respectively). For A. nodosum and P. canaliculata, strongest inhibition occurred with ethanol pellet (IC50 = 0.238 and 0.228 mg mL−1, respectively). These inhibitory effects were validated in a model gut system. The data presented herein suggests the use of seaweed as a potential weight management tool is deserving of further investigation. © 2015, The Author(s). Source

Moran N.E.,Ohio State University | Novotny J.A.,Human Nutrition Research Center | Cichon M.J.,Ohio State University | Riedl K.M.,Ohio State University | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Nutrition | Year: 2016

Background: Phytoene is a tomato carotenoid that may contribute to the apparent health benefits of tomato consumption. Although phytoene is a less prominent tomato carotenoid than lycopene, it is a major carotenoid in various human tissues. Phytoene distribution to plasma lipoproteins and tissues differs from lycopene, suggesting the kinetics of phytoene and lycopene differ. Objective: The objective of this study was to characterize the kinetic parameters of phytoene absorption, distribution, and excretion in adults, to better understand why biodistribution of phytoene differs from lycopene. Methods: Four adults (2 males, 2 females) maintained a controlled phytoene diet (1-5 mg/d) for 42 d. On day 14, each consumed 3.2 mg 13C-phytoene, produced using tomato cell suspension culture technology. Blood samples were collected at 0, 1-15, 17, 21, and 24 h and 2, 3, 4, 7, 10, 14, 17, 21, and 28 d after 13C-phytoene consumption. Plasmaunlabeled and plasma-labeled phytoene concentrations were determined using ultra-HPLC-quadrupole time-of-flightmass spectrometry, and data were fit to a 7-compartment carotenoid kinetic model using WinSAAM 3.0.7 software. Results: Subjects were compliant with a controlled phytoene diet, consuming a mean 6 SE of 2.5 6 0.6 mg/d, resulting in a plasma unlabeled phytoene concentration of 71 6 14 nmol/L. A maximal plasma 13C-phytoene concentration of 55.6 6 5.9 nM was achieved 19.8 6 9.2 h after consumption, and the plasma half-life was 2.3 6 0.2 d. Compared with previous results for lycopene, phytoene bioavailability was nearly double at 58% 6 19%, the clearance rate from chylomicrons was slower, and the rates of deposition into and utilization by the slow turnover tissue compartment were nearly 3 times greater. Conclusions: Although only differing from lycopene by 4 double bonds, phytoene exhibitsmarkedly different kinetic characteristics in human plasma, providing insight into metabolic processes contributing to phytoene enrichment in plasma and tissues comparedwith lycopene. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01692340. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition. Source

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