Human Monitoring Laboratory

Ottawa, Canada

Human Monitoring Laboratory

Ottawa, Canada
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Kramer G.H.,University of Sussex | Hauck B.,Human Monitoring Laboratory
Health Physics | Year: 2012

A commercial detector calibration package has been assessed for its use to calibrate the Human Monitoring Laboratory's Portable Whole Body Counter that is used for emergency response. The advantage of such a calibration software is that calibrations can be derived very quickly once the model has been designed. The commercial package's predictions were compared to experimental point source data and to predictions from Monte Carlo simulations. It was found that the software adequately predicted the counting efficiencies of a point source geometry to values derived from Monte Carlo simulations and experimental work. Both the standing and seated counting geometries agreed sufficiently well that the commercial package could be used in the field. Copyright © 2012 Health Physics Society.


Martinez N.E.,Clemson University | Johnson T.E.,Colorado State University | Capello K.,Human Monitoring Laboratory | Pinder J.E.,Colorado State University
Journal of Environmental Radioactivity | Year: 2014

This study develops and compares different, increasingly detailed anatomical phantoms for rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) for the purpose of estimating organ absorbed radiation dose and dose rates from 131I uptake in multiple organs. The models considered are: a simplistic geometry considering a single organ, a more specific geometry employing additional organs with anatomically relevant size and location, and voxel reconstruction of internal anatomy obtained from CT imaging (referred to as CSUTROUT). Dose Conversion Factors (DCFs) for whole body as well as selected organs of O.mykiss were computed using Monte Carlo modeling, and combined with estimated activity concentrations, to approximate dose rates and ultimately determine cumulative radiation dose (μGy) to selected organs after several half-lives of 131I. The different computational models provided similar results, especially for source organs (less than 30% difference between estimated doses), and whole body DCFs for each model (~3×10-3μGyd-1perBqkg-1) were comparable to DCFs listed in ICRP 108 for 131I. The main benefit provided by the computational models developed here is the ability to accurately determine organ dose. A conservative mass-ratio approach may provide reasonable results for sufficiently large organs, but is only applicable to individual source organs. Although CSUTROUT is the more anatomically realistic phantom, it required much more resource dedication to develop and is less flexible than the stylized phantom for similar results. There may be instances where a detailed phantom such as CSUTROUT is appropriate, but generally the stylized phantom appears to be the best choice for an ideal balance between accuracy and resource requirements. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.


PubMed | Clemson University, Human Monitoring Laboratory and Colorado State University
Type: | Journal: Journal of environmental radioactivity | Year: 2014

This study develops and compares different, increasingly detailed anatomical phantoms for rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) for the purpose of estimating organ absorbed radiation dose and dose rates from (131)I uptake in multiple organs. The models considered are: a simplistic geometry considering a single organ, a more specific geometry employing additional organs with anatomically relevant size and location, and voxel reconstruction of internal anatomy obtained from CT imaging (referred to as CSUTROUT). Dose Conversion Factors (DCFs) for whole body as well as selected organs of O.mykiss were computed using Monte Carlo modeling, and combined with estimated activity concentrations, to approximate dose rates and ultimately determine cumulative radiation dose (Gy) to selected organs after several half-lives of (131)I. The different computational models provided similar results, especially for source organs (less than 30% difference between estimated doses), and whole body DCFs for each model (310(-3)Gyd(-1)perBqkg(-1)) were comparable to DCFs listed in ICRP 108 for (131)I. The main benefit provided by the computational models developed here is the ability to accurately determine organ dose. A conservative mass-ratio approach may provide reasonable results for sufficiently large organs, but is only applicable to individual source organs. Although CSUTROUT is the more anatomically realistic phantom, it required much more resource dedication to develop and is less flexible than the stylized phantom for similar results. There may be instances where a detailed phantom such as CSUTROUT is appropriate, but generally the stylized phantom appears to be the best choice for an ideal balance between accuracy and resource requirements.


Khalaf M.,Idaho State University | Brey R.R.,Idaho State University | Kramer G.H.,Human Monitoring Laboratory | Capello K.,Human Monitoring Laboratory | Acha R.,Idaho State University
Health Physics | Year: 2013

A computational model using an MCNPX version 2.6.0 code and a leg voxel phantom was previously constructed and validated against the in vivo measurements of the United States Transuranium and Uranium Registries (USTUR) case 0846 leg. Using the MCNPX model, different simulation scenarios of 241Am distribution in the bones and tissue material of a leg were performed, and their effects on the detection efficiency and activity calculation were examined. The purpose of this work is to ensure and increase the simulation sensitivity of real contaminated human bones and reduce the simulated efficiency error associated with the distribution of 241Am activity within the leg bones when using a high purity germanium EHP(Ge)^ detector. The results showed that the simulated detection efficiency obtained from the uniform distribution of 241Am in the leg bones was underestimated by a factor of up to 0.3 compared with the measured and simulated detection efficiency obtained from the non-uniform distribution of 241Am in different sections of the leg bones. The p-value of a one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) F-test among the mean values of the simulated detection efficiencies was calculated and provided evidence of a significant difference. The uncertainty in the bone activity estimate could be quite large (25% to 30%) if calibration of detection efficiency is based on assuming a uniform distribution of 241Am in the phantom to estimate the USTUR case 0846 leg activity. It is therefore recommended that during calibration of detectors, a non-uniform distribution of 241Am in different sections of the bones should be used rather than a uniform distribution. Additionally, an assumption of a uniform distribution of 241Am will simulate 241Am activity deposited in the leg bones of a real contamination case inadequately. Copyright © 2013 Health Physics Society.


Sabbir Ahmed A.,Human Monitoring Laboratory | H. Kramer G.,Human Monitoring Laboratory
Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research, Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment | Year: 2011

This study described the performance of an array of HPGe detectors, made by ORTEC. In the existing system, a metal end cap was used in the detector construction. In general, the natural metal contains some radioactive materials, create high background noises and signals during in vivo counting. ORTEC proposed a novel carbon fiber to be used in end cap, without any radio active content. This paper described the methodology of developing a model of the given HPGe array-detectors, comparing the detection efficiency and cross talk among the detectors using two end cap materials: either metal or carbon fiber and to provide a recommendation about the end cap material. The detectors counting efficiency were studied using point and plane sources. The cross talk among the array detectors were studied using a homogeneous attenuating medium made of tissue equivalent material. The cross talk was significant when single or multiple point sources (simulated to heterogeneous hot spots) were embedded inside the attenuating medium. With carbon fiber, the cross talk increased about 100% for photon energy at about 100 keV. For a uniform distribution of radioactive material, the cross talk increased about 510% when the end cap was made of carbon instead of steel. Metal end cap was recommended for the array of HPGe detectors. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.


Ahmed A.S.,Human Monitoring Laboratory | Hauck B.,Human Monitoring Laboratory | Kramer G.H.,Human Monitoring Laboratory
Radiation Protection Dosimetry | Year: 2012

This study described the performance of an array of high-purity Germanium detectors, designed with two different end cap materials-steel and carbon fibre. The advantages and disadvantages of using this detector type in the estimation of the minimum detectable activity (MDA) for different energy peaks of isotope. 152Eu were illustrated. A Monte Carlo model was developed to study the detection efficiency for the detector array. A voxelised Lawrence Livermore torso phantom, equipped with lung, chest plates and overlay plates, was used to mimic a typical lung counting protocol with the array of detectors. The lung of the phantom simulated the volumetric source organ. A significantly low MDA was estimated for energy peaks at 40 keV and at a chest wall thickness of 6.64 cm. © The Author 2012. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.


Kramer G.H.,Human Monitoring Laboratory | Sabourin T.,Human Monitoring Laboratory
Health Physics | Year: 2010

The National Internal Radiation Assessment Section's Human Monitoring Laboratory (HML) has purchased and developed a number of in-house tools to create and edit voxel phantoms. This paper describes the methodology developed in the HML using those tools to prepare input files for Monte Carlo simulations using voxel phantoms. Three examples are given. The in-house tools described in this paper, and the phantoms that have been created using them, are all publically available upon request from the corresponding author. Copyright © 2010 Health Physics Society.


Kramer G.H.,Human Monitoring Laboratory | Capello K.,Human Monitoring Laboratory | Hauck B.M.,Human Monitoring Laboratory
Health Physics | Year: 2012

Since the Human Monitoring Laboratory compared two types of portal monitors (the P3 and the MiniSentry) that could be field deployed in response to an emergency, two more brands have been added to the inventory. This paper summarizes a comparison of the capabilities of the previous portal monitors with the two additions: the Thermo Eberline TPM-903B and the Ludlum 52-1-1. The comparison shows that none of the portals greatly exceed the others in capability, but that each will have their place during emergency deployment; however, when beta radiation or low energy gamma radiation is suspected, then the best choice would be the Ludlum 52-1-1. Copyright © 2012 Health Physics Society.


Capello K.,Human Monitoring Laboratory | Kedzior S.,Human Monitoring Laboratory | Kramer G.H.,Human Monitoring Laboratory
Health Physics | Year: 2012

Two new voxel phantoms, ICRP Adult Female (AF) and ICRP Adult Male (AM), have been compared with BOMAB (BOttle Mannikin ABsorber) phantoms and other voxel phantoms of similar size (NORMAN and VIP-Man) using Monte Carlo simulations to assess their counting efficiencies in a whole body counter. The results show that the ICRP phantoms, compared with NORMAN and VIP-Man, had counting efficiencies that ranged from 3% to 59% higher over the energy range 122 keV to 1,836 keV, a trend that is also exhibited by the comparable BOMAB phantoms. A comparison of all the voxel phantoms' results to those of the BOMAB phantom corresponding to reference man shows that the NORMAN and VIP-Man have mostly lower counting efficiencies, whereas the ICRP phantoms have higher counting efficiencies than the PM (Phantom Male) BOMAB phantom. This could be due to differences in the internal structure of each of the voxel phantoms. As expected, the ICRP AF (female voxel) had the highest efficiency due to being the smallest of all the phantoms. Copyright © 2012 Health Physics Society.


Ahmed A.S.,Human Monitoring Laboratory
Health physics | Year: 2011

This paper describes the methodology of measuring the chest wall thickness using the voxel image of the Lawrence Livermore National Lab (LLNL) torso phantom. The LLNL phantom is used as a standard to calibrate a lung counter consisting of a 2 × 2 array of germanium detectors. In general, an average thickness estimated from four counting positions is used as the chest wall thickness for a given overlay plate. For a given overlay, the outer chest surface differs from that of inner one, and the chest wall thickness varies from one position to other. The LLNL phantom with chest plate and C4 overlay plate installed was scanned with a CT (computed tomography) scanner. The image data, collected in DICOM (Digital Imaging and Communication) format, were converted to the MCNP input file by using the Scan2Mcnp program. The MCNP file was visualized and analyzed with the Moritz visual editor. An analytic expression was formulated and solved to calculate the chest wall thickness by using the point detector responses (F 5 tally of MCNP). To map the chest thickness, the entire chest wall was meshed into virtual grids of 1 cm width. A source and detector pair was moved along the inner and outer surface of the chest wall from right to left at different heights from neck to abdomen. For each height (z(k)), (x(i), y(j)) coordinates for the detector source pair were calculated from the visual editor and were scaled on-screen. For each (x(i), y(j), z(k)) position, a mesh thickness was measured from on-screen measurement and by solving the detector responses. The chest wall thicknesses at different positions on the outer surface of the chest were compared and verified using two methods.

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