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Marshfield, WI, United States

Glurich I.,Marshfield Clinic Research Foundation | Burmester J.K.,Center for Human Genetics | Caldwell M.D.,Marshfield Clinic
Heart Failure Reviews

Warfarin remains the drug of choice for longterm anticoagulation management in a variety of conditions. Despite an established role in prevention of thromboembolic events such as stroke, warfarin continues to be underutilized because of its association with serious drug-related adverse events. Lacking alternative therapeutic approaches, intensive research in the past decade has focused on making anticoagulation with warfarin safer. Much emphasis has been placed on defining factors associated with the wide individual variability in warfarin dose. Polymorphic sites in three genes, cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2C9, vitamin K 2,3 epoxide reductase complex 1 (VKORC1), and CYP4F2, have been shown to affect stable warfarin dose. An overview of the persistent issues related to warfarin therapy and our current understanding of the genetic and clinical factors affecting warfarin dosing is presented. Finally, unresolved issues in improving clinical care of warfarin patients and future directions are provided. Source

De Strooper B.,Center for Human Genetics | Vassar R.,Northwestern University | Golde T.,Mayo Medical School
Nature Reviews Neurology

The amyloid hypothesis has yielded a series of well-validated candidate drug targets with potential for the treatment of Alzheimer disease (AD). Three proteases that are involved in the processing of amyloid precursor proteinα-secretase, Β-secretase and γ-secretaseare of particular interest as they are central to the generation and modulation of amyloid-Β peptide and can be targeted by small compounds in vitro and in vivo. Given that these proteases also fulfill other important biological roles, inhibiting their activity will clearly be inherently associated with mechanism-based toxicity. Carefully determining a suitable therapeutic window and optimizing the selectivity of the drug treatments towards amyloid precursor protein processing might be ways of overcoming this potential complication. Secretase inhibitors are likely to be the first small-molecule therapies aimed at AD modification that will be fully tested in the clinic. Success or failure of these first-generation AD therapies will have enormous consequences for further drug development efforts for AD and possibly other neurodegenerative conditions. © 2010 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved. Source

Bergmann C.,Center for Human Genetics | Bergmann C.,University Hospital Freiburg
Pediatric Nephrology

Renal cysts are clinically and genetically heterogeneous conditions. Polycystic kidney disease (PKD) is common and its characterization has paved the way for the identification of a growing number of cilia-related disorders (ciliopathies) of which most show cystic kidneys. While the recessive form of PKD (ARPKD) virtually always presents in childhood, early onset can, in some instances, also occur in the dominant form (ADPKD). Both ADPKD genes (PKD1 and PKD2) can also be inherited in a recessive way, making the story more complex with evidence for a dosage-sensitive network. Several phenocopies are known, and mutations in HNF1ß or genes that typically cause other ciliopathies, such as nephronophthisis, Bardet–Biedl, Joubert syndrome and related disorders, can mimic PKD. An accurate genetic diagnosis is crucial for genetic counseling, prenatal diagnostics, and the clinical management of patients and their families. The increasing number of genes that have to be considered in patients with cystic kidney disease is challenging to address by conventional techniques and largely benefits from next-generation sequencing-based approaches. The parallel analysis of targeted genes considerably increases the detection rate, allows for better interpretation of identified variants, and avoids genetic misdiagnoses. © 2014, The Author(s). Source

Bergmann C.,Center for Human Genetics | Bergmann C.,RWTH Aachen | Weiskirchen R.,RWTH Aachen
Journal of Hepatology

Autosomal dominant polycystic liver disease results from mutations in PRKCSH or SEC63. The respective gene products, glucosidase IIβ and SEC63p, function in protein translocation and quality control pathways in the endoplasmic reticulum. Here we show that glucosidase IIβ and Sec63p are required in mice for adequate expression of a functional complex of the polycystic kidney disease gene products, polycystin-1 and polycystin-2. We find that polycystin-1 is the rate-limiting component of this complex and that there is a dose-response relationship between cystic dilation and levels of functional polycystin-1 following mutation of Prkcsh or Sec63. Reduced expression of polycystin-1 also serves to sensitize the kidney to cyst formation resulting from mutations in Pkhd1, the recessive polycystic kidney disease gene. Finally, we show that proteasome inhibition increases steady-state levels of polycystin-1 in cells lacking glucosidase IIβ and that treatment with a proteasome inhibitor reduces cystic disease in orthologous gene models of human autosomal dominant polycystic liver. © 2012 European Association for the Study of the Liver. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Source

De Strooper B.,Center for Human Genetics
Physiological Reviews

Alzheimer disease is characterized by the accumulation of abnormally folded protein fragments, i.e., amyloid beta peptide (Aβ) and tau that precipitate in amyloid plaques and neuronal tangles, respectively. In this review we discuss the complicated proteolytic pathways that are responsible for the generation and clearance of these fragments, and how disturbances in these pathways interact and provide a background for a novel understanding of Alzheimer disease as a multifactorial disorder. Recent insights evolve from the static view that the morphologically defined plaques and tangles are disease driving towards a more dynamic, biochemical view in which the intermediary soluble Aβ oligomers and soluble tau fragments are considered as the main mediators of neurotoxicity. The relevance of proteolytic pathways, centered on the generation and clearance of toxic Aβ, on the cleavage and nucleation of tau, and on the general proteostasis of the neurons, then becomes obvious. Blocking or stimulating these pathways provide, or have the potential to provide, interesting drug targets, which raises the hope that we will be able to provide a cure for this dreadful disorder. Copyright © 2010 the American Physiological Society. Source

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