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Smahel T.,Human Factors North Inc.
Transportation Research Record | Year: 2017

The number of international travelers traveling through U.S. airports is increasing because of the proliferation of longer-range aircraft, expanding global alliances, and a growing middle class from developing nations. Each international airport has a unique design, and many international travelers experience difficulty finding their way in unfamiliar airports. The wayfinding task is made more difficult when combined with other factors such as traveler anxiety, jet lag, and unfamiliarity with the local language and culture. To understand better the challenges faced by international travelers, a literature review, a human factors task analysis, and an international traveler intercept survey were carried out to determine traveler needs, expectations, and key factors that affect traveler satisfaction with an airport. Four traveler surveys were developed and administered to different traveler groups. Surveys were administered at the eight U.S. gateway airports with the most international travelers. Some key findings were as follows: (a) all traveler groups identified easy wayfinding as being the most important airport feature, with travelers transferring between two flights rating it highest; (b) in comparison to other traveler groups, arriving travelers rated short walking distance as being much more important than other features; (c) travelers making a connection between two international flights did not expect that they would need to collect and recheck their bags while in transit; (d) travelers making a connection between two international flights had the lowest overall satisfaction as compared with the other traveler groups; and (e) only one-third of travelers making a connection between two international flights had a positive experience with the walking distance between flights. © 2017, National Research Council. All rights reserved.


Filtness A.J.,Monash University | Mitsopoulos-Rubens E.,Monash University | Rudin-Brown C.M.,Monash University | Rudin-Brown C.M.,Human Factors North Inc.
Applied Ergonomics | Year: 2014

Musculoskeletal pain is commonly reported by police officers. A potential cause of officer discomfort is a mismatch between vehicle seats and the method used for carrying appointments. Twenty-five police officers rated their discomfort while seated in: (1) a standard police vehicle seat, and (2) a vehicle seat custom-designed for police use. Discomfort was recorded in both seats while wearing police appointments on: (1) a traditional appointments belt, and (2) a load-bearing vest/belt combination (LBV). Sitting in the standard vehicle seat and carrying appointments on a traditional appointments belt were both associated with significantly elevated discomfort. Four vehicle seat features were most implicated as contributing to discomfort: back rest bolster prominence; lumbar region support; seat cushion width; and seat cushion bolster depth. Authorising the carriage of appointments using a LBV is a lower cost solution with potential to reduce officer discomfort. Furthermore, the introduction of custom-designed vehicle seats should be considered. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society.


Frankel R.M.,Roudebush Medical Center | Frankel R.M.,Indiana University | Frankel R.M.,Regenstrief Institute Inc. | Saleem J.J.,Human Factors North Inc.
Patient Education and Counseling | Year: 2013

Objective: Technical and interpersonal challenges of using electronic health records (EHRs) in ambulatory care persist. We use cockpit communication as an example of highly coordinated complex activity during flight and compare it with providers' communication when computers are used in the exam room. Methods: Maximum variation sampling was used to identify two videotapes from a parent study of primary care physicians' exam room computer demonstrating the greatest variation. We then produced and analyzed visualizations of the time providers spent looking at the computer and looking at the patient. Results: Unlike the cockpit which is engineered to optimize joint attention on complex coordinated activities, we found polar extremes in the use of joint focus of attention to manage the medical encounter. Conclusion: We conclude that there is a great deal of room for improving the balance of interpersonal and technical attention that occurs in routine ambulatory visits in which computers are present in the exam room. Practice implications: Using well-known aviation practices can help primary care providers become more aware of the opportunities and challenges for enhancing the physician patient relationship in an era of exam room computing. © 2013.


Smahel T.,Human Factors North Inc. | Smiley A.,Human Factors North Inc.
Transportation Research Record | Year: 2010

A new terminal building resulting in the expansion of the road network was built at Pearson International Airport in Toronto, Canada. A laboratory study was carried out to assess the effectiveness of the proposed guide signs. Participants' decision times and the accuracy of the lane choices selected to reach a provided destination were measured as they responded to a sequence of road signs guiding them into and out of the airport presented on a desktop computer. The key results were as follows: participants showed high response accuracies and fast response times for signs for airport entry, the split between terminals, and the split between arrivals and departures; signs listing the airport terminals for nine airlines on each sign were associated with excessive response times; the split to parking at the arrivals-departures- parking decision point was misunderstood by one-third to one-half of drivers, who assumed that they could continue to the curbside, expecting to find parking there; and the current widely used car rental pictogram was poorly understood, and a new alternative design was preferred by participants.


Reidemar H.,Human Factors North Inc.
International Air Safety Seminar Proceedings | Year: 2014

• Inadequate flight crew monitoring has been cited by a number of sources as a problem for aviation safety. • While it is true that humans are not naturally good monitors, crew monitoring performance can be significantly improved.


Rudin-Brown C.M.,Human Factors North Inc. | Edquist J.,Human Factors North Inc. | Lenne M.G.,Human Factors North Inc.
Safety Science | Year: 2014

Theories of driving behaviour and behavioural adaptation aim to explain why and how drivers modify their behaviour according to changes in roadway conditions. Elements of a driver's personality and their level of driving experience may be contributing factors to the likelihood and nature of behavioural adaptation to road environment complexity. The present driving simulator study examined the effects of driving experience and sensation-seeking on drivers' adaptation to road environment complexity in urban areas. Three increasing levels of road environment complexity served as the experimental manipulation. Compared to drivers with between 1 and 5. years of licensed driving experience, drivers with 10. years or more experience displayed a greater degree of adaptation to increasingly complex urban environments in terms of reductions in speed. This enabled them to respond more quickly to a safety-relevant peripheral detection task (PDT) in the most complex road environment than a group of drivers with a moderate level (5-10. years) of driving experience. Although the effects of sensation-seeking were not consistent across measures, it may interact with level of road complexity in terms of changes in lane position and lane position variability. Collectively, results from this exploratory study suggest that driving experience and low sensation-seeking tendencies may be associated with an enhanced ability to appropriately assess the demands of the road environment. However, the assumed ability of drivers with 10. years or more experience to choose a more appropriate speed was only applicable in the most complex road environment. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.


Smahel T.,Human Factors North Inc. | Smiley A.,Human Factors North Inc.
Transportation Research Record | Year: 2011

Before implementation of a new Parks Canada signing system, a laboratory study was carried out to compare bilingual sign layout options and to assess the relative information load of various sign elements. Participants were given a name or activity destination and shown a sign embedded in a road scene for a brief interval. Participants were asked to recall whether various elements were present on the sign. The key results on sign layout were as follows: on signs with side-by-side arrangement of languages, the primary language should be on the left; horizontal separators between destinations improve performance; vertically stacked arrangement of languages performs better than conventional side-by-side arrangement; placing all arrows on the left side of the sign as opposed to left and forward arrows to the left and right arrows to the right improves performance. Key findings regarding maximum information load were as follows: single-destination name signs performed much better than two- and three-destination signs for layouts with direction arrows, destination names, and activity pictograms. Two-destination signs performed better than three-destination signs for layouts with direction arrows, destination names, and distances. Regarding relative information load of sign elements, a name pair should be considered to have the same information load as a single activity pictogram, and a distance element has less information load than an activity pictogram.


Hudson G.,Human Factors North Inc.
IET Seminar Digest | Year: 2015

HEPs and HRA have their place and their uses HF is vastly more than just HRA HF adds significant value to a project if actively integrated from its inception - Use HFI! HF is transverse - Sits on both sides of the Engineering/Safety fence Late integration of HF adds cost and delay - So integrate early!


Saleem J.J.,Center on Implementing Evidence Based Practice | Saleem J.J.,Indiana University | Saleem J.J.,Regenstrief Institute Inc. | Flanagan M.E.,Indiana University | And 5 more authors.
Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association | Year: 2013

The rapid change in healthcare has focused attention on the necessary development of a next-generation electronic health record (EHR) to support system transformation and more effective patient-centered care. The Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) is developing plans for the next-generation EHR to support improved care delivery for veterans. To understand the needs for a next-generation EHR, we interviewed 14 VA operational, clinical and informatics leaders for their vision about system needs. Leaders consistently identified priorities for development in the areas of cognitive support, information synthesis, teamwork and communication, interoperability, data availability, usability, customization, and information management. The need to reconcile different EHR initiatives currently underway in the VA, as well as opportunities for data sharing, will be critical for continued progress. These findings may support the VA's effort for evolutionary change to its information system and draw attention to necessary research and development for a next-generation information system and EHR nationally.


Trademark
Human Factors North Inc. | Date: 2012-10-11

Printed matter, namely, printed instructional, educational, and teaching materials in the field of management consulting, business psychology, competency framework, personal development programs, personality tests, organisational culture and strategy development; books, manuals and workbooks in the field of management consulting, business psychology, competency framework, personal development programs, personality tests, organisational culture and strategy development; printed questionnaires and surveys on personal development programs, personality and psychology; diagrams for use in management consulting, business psychology, competency framework, personal development programs, personality tests, organisational culture and strategy development; printed formulas for use in management consulting, business psychology, competency framework, personal development programs, personality tests, organisational culture and strategy development; pamphlets, booklets and newsletters in the field of management consulting, business psychology, competency framework, personal development programs, personality tests, organisational culture and strategy development; and printed reports featuring management consulting, business psychology, competency framework, personal development programs, personality tests, organisational culture and strategy development, all of the aforementioned goods for use in the field of human resources. Human resource analysis, namely, work analysis to determine worker skill sets and other worker requirements; personality tests and profiling assessment, namely, psychological testing for the selection of personnel; compiling of human resource statistical data; conducting business research and surveys, namely, conducting of workplace assessments through employee inquiries and interviews; drafting reports within the field of human resources, namely, expert evaluations and reports relating to business matters. Education services, namely, providing on-line classes, seminars, and workshops in the field of management consulting, business psychology, competency framework, personal development, administering personality tests and profiling assessment, all of the aforementioned services for use in the field of human resources; training services, namely, courses, seminars, conferences and workshops in the field of human resources.

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