Human Centered Solutions

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Houston, TX, United States
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Tharanathan A.,Honeywell | Bullemer P.,Human Centered Solutions | Laberge J.,Honeywell | Reising D.V.,Human Centered Solutions | Mclain R.,Human Centered Solutions
Journal of Cognitive Engineering and Decision Making | Year: 2012

Console operators in process plants have to maintain a high level of situation awareness to operate the plant safely, effectively, and efficiently. An overview display is one of the primary displays in a control room that operators monitor to gain and maintain an understanding of the plant. In this study, the authors evaluated operator performance using two overview display formats. The first format, characterized as a functional design, included qualitative, graphical indicators for process parameters and organized the position of the indicators on the basis of functional relations of the process equipment. The second format, characterized as a traditional schematic display, showed connecting process lines between equipment and numerical fields to present process information. Both displays contained the same indicator values. Eighteen plant operators used both display formats to monitor a crude unit process for process parameters that deviated from normal values. We measured operators' situation awareness using think-aloud protocols and situation awareness global assessment technique, subjective workload, and usability ratings. Results indicated that operators' situation awareness was significantly higher when they monitored the process on a functional display compared with a schematic display. Their subjective workload and usability ratings also favored the functional overview display format. Implications of the findings for continuous process control and overview display design are discussed. © 2012 Human Factors and Ergonomics Society.


Tolsma M.,Sasol Limited | Jones M.,Sasol Limited | Reising D.V.,Human Centered Solutions | Bullemer P.T.,Human Centered Solutions | And 2 more authors.
InTech | Year: 2010

ASM Consortium has introduced effective practice areas that ensure the reduction of process safety incidents in the manufacturing industry caused by human error. It is recommended to understand abnormal situations including the broad scope of investigating the causes and impacts of abnormal situations with the aim to prioritize future research and to efficiently and accurately inform continuous improvement programs that reduces abnormal situations. Organizational roles, responsibilities, and processes focus on determining the management systems, work practices, organizational structures, and continuous improvement culture that support the prevention of abnormal situations. Training and the continuous learning environment ensures that the personnel can effectively respond and cope with abnormal situations. The effective use of information media ensures work continuity between operational and functional team members of an organization.


Bullemer P.T.,Human Centered Solutions | Kiff L.,Honeywell | Tharanathan A.,Honeywell
Journal of Loss Prevention in the Process Industries | Year: 2011

The Abnormal Situation Management® Consortium11This research study was sponsored by the Abnormal Situation Management® (ASM®) Consortium. ASM and Abnormal Situation Management are registered trademarks of Honeywell International, Inc. funded a study to investigate procedural execution failures during abnormal situations. The study team analyzed 20 publically available and 12 corporate confidential incident reports using the TapRoot® methodology to identify root causes associated with procedural execution failures. The main finding from this investigation was the majority of the procedural execution failures (57%) across these 32 incident reports were associated with abnormal situations. Specific recommendations include potential information to capture from plant incident to better understand the sources of procedural execution failures and improve use of procedures in abnormal situations. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.


Bullemer P.T.,Human Centered Solutions | Laberge J.C.,Honeywell
11AIChE - 2011 AIChE Spring Meeting and 7th Global Congress on Process Safety, Conference Proceedings | Year: 2011

The Abnormal Situation Management® Consortium funded a study to investigate common failure modes and root causes associated with operations practices. A total of 20 public and 12 private incidents across the refining, chemical, and oil and gas industries was examined for common operations practice failure modes, including the BP Texas City Incident. Ineffective first-line supervision was one of the most frequent operations practice failures. A number of potential proactive indicators of weaknesses in operations practices was observed. Organizations seeking to establish a strong safety culture need to ensure that there is an effective first-line supervision practice. An operations audit checklist to enable plant personnel to assess their potential vulnerability to this common failure mode is put forward. This is an abstract of a paper presented at the 2011 AIChE Spring Meeting & 7th Global Congress on Process Safety (Chicago, IL 3/13-17/2011).


Bullemer P.,Human Centered Solutions | Laberge J.C.,Honeywell
Journal of Loss Prevention in the Process Industries | Year: 2010

The Abnormal Situation Management® (ASM®) Consortium (This research study was sponsored by the Abnormal Situation Management (ASM) Consortium. ASM® and Abnormal Situation Management® are registered trademarks of Honeywell International, Inc.) funded a study to investigate common failure modes and root causes associated with operations practices. The study team analyzed 20 public and 12 private incident reports using the TapRoot® methodology to identify root causes. These root causes were mapped to operations practice failures. This paper describes the top ten operations failure modes identified in the analysis. Specific recommendations include how to analyze plant incident reports to better understand the sources of systemic failures and improve plant operating practices. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.


Laberge J.C.,Honeywell | Bullemer P.,Human Centered Solutions | Tolsma M.,Sasol Limited | Reising D.V.C.,Human Centered Solutions
International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics | Year: 2014

Despite efforts to improve alarm systems, alarm flooding remains a significant problem in the process industries. Alarm summary displays for managing alarm floods do not fully support operator needs when responding to plant upsets. This Abnormal Situation Management Consortium (asmconsortium.org) funded study tested two alarm summary display designs in a simulated process control environment using twenty-four certified operators. The first display represented the traditional list-based alarm summary display typically used in control rooms. The second display was a new alarm tracker summary display, which showed alarms in a time series represented by icons and a short alarm description. Results of the simulated evaluation showed that when operators used a formal alarm response strategy that focused the new alarm tracker summary display by equipment area, they responded to more process events overall and had fewer false responses compared to when operators used the traditional list-based alarm summary. Relevance to industry: New alarm summary displays can combine the benefits of list-based displays with time series presentation of alarm information. Process operators can be trained on formal alarm response strategies and should be given ample time to familiarize themselves with new displays as part of an effective deployment strategy. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.


Bullemer P.T.,Human Centered Solutions | Reising D.V.C.,Human Centered Solutions
18th Process Plant Safety Symposium, PPSS 2016 - Topical Conference at the 2016 AIChE Spring Meeting and 12th Global Congress on Process Safety | Year: 2016

The ASM Consortium conducted a series of studies investigating the role of operations practice failures in major process safety incidents. The results of the studies improved our understanding of human reliability factors contributing to major process safety incidents. The paper discusses the implications of these operations practice failure modes for process safety metrics. The paper includes recommendations on how process safety metrics could be enhanced to measure the effectiveness of operations practices and their potential impact on process safety performance. Copyright © 2016 Retained by Authors, April, UNPUBLISHED.


Reising D.V.,Human Centered Solutions | Bullemer P.,Human Centered Solutions | Colgate B.,Human Centered Solutions
Society of Petroleum Engineers - SPE Offshore Europe Conference and Exhibition, OE 2013 | Year: 2013

The Abnormal Situation Management (ASM) Consortium has been working together for almost twenty years to address process safety and operational challenges in Downstream industries. Recently, the ASM Consortium has expanded its focus to upstream enterprises, withmany of the operating company members having extensive Oil &Gas businesses. The ASM Consortium performed a root cause analysis on thirdy-two incident reports that were gathered from public documents and from member companies. While several of the reports were from the Oil & Gas sector, themajority of the incident reports were from Downstream and Chemicals. The analysis identified common failure categories and common failure manifestations across the incidents. The three most common failure modes across the incidents were lack of a comprehensive hazard analysis program, lack of effective first-line leadership, and lack of a comprehensiave continuous improvement program. As a result of analyzing common failure manifestations for root causes associated with the ASM Effective Operations guideline on First-line Leadership,an audit checklist was developed to identify effective First-line leadership practices that would mitigate the root causes identified. Eighty-two percent of the basic causes were related to human reliability. Consequenlty,theConsortium completed three case studies on potential deployment solutions - one that supported better shift handover communication and compared the use of a structured checklist to a unstructured handover,asecond that supported better 'alarm flood' situations and compared a 'trend visualization' of alarms to a list-based alarm summary,anda third that supported better 'situation awareness' via overview displays using qualitative gauges,comparedto a schematic display using numerical indication alone. In all three cases,professionaloperators participated in the case study evaluations. In the case study on shift-handover,theuse of a structured checklist demonstrated a trend for improved quality of logbook entries and improved situation awareness of on-coming operators,comparedto a handover process that was unstructured. The case study on mitigating the impact of 'alarm floods' demonstrated the effective alarm response for a given display approach was impacted by the response strategy used,more so than the display itself. Moreoer,theuse of an 'alarm throttling' algorithm improved operator performance consistently across conditions,compared to the 'unthrottled' case. Finally,the case study on effective design and evaluation of overview displays demonstrated that the qualitative gauges improved operator situation awareness more than 200% compared to schematic layouts with numerical indicators. Abnormal situations represent near-miss events in the process safety pyramid; effective abnormal situation management is integral to a comprehensive process safety management program. There is very little literature that connects the process safety and human factors research generated by the ASM Consortium with Offshore operations. Moreover,recentemphasis within the SPE itself has identified human factors as a critical area for Offshore operations that needs more attention and understanding. This presentation will raise awareness within the Offshore community of previous process safety research findings from these ASM studies on how they relate and can be applied directly to Offshore concerns. Copyright 2013, Society of Petroleum Engineers.


Bloom C.,Human Centered Solutions | Bullemer P.,Human Centered Solutions | Barreth R.,Human Centered Solutions | Reising D.V.,Human Centered Solutions
NPRA Annual Meeting Technical Papers | Year: 2010

An important responsibility of console operators is to prevent and respond to abnormal situations. The nature of the abnormal situation may be of minimal or of catastrophic consequence; it is the job of the operations team to identify the cause of the situation and execute compensatory or corrective action in a timely and efficient manner. A discussion on situation awareness for refining and petrochemical process operators covers dynamic process control environments; complexity of the intervention requirements; successfully responding to abnormal situations; assessment statements; and techniques to improve situation awareness on the job. This is an abstract of a paper presented at the 2010 NPRA Annual Meeting (Phoenix, AZ 3/21-23/2010).

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