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Kalisiak J.,Human BioMolecular Research Institute | Ralph E.C.,Human BioMolecular Research Institute | Cashman J.R.,Human BioMolecular Research Institute
Journal of Medicinal Chemistry | Year: 2012

A new class of amidine-oxime reactivators of organophosphate (OP)-inhibited cholinesterases (ChE) was synthesized and tested in vitro and in vivo. Compared with 2-PAM, the most promising cyclic amidine-oxime (i.e., 12e) showed comparable or greater reactivation of OP-inactivated AChE and OP-inactivated BChE. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a nonquaternary oxime that has, comparable to 2-PAM, in vitro potency for reactivation of Sarin (GB)-inhibited AChE and BChE. Amidine-oximes were tested in vitro, and reactivation rates for OP-inactivated butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) were greater than those for 2-PAM or MINA. Amidine-oxime reactivation rates for OP-inactivated acetylcholinesterase (AChE) were lower compared to 2-PAM but greater compared with MINA. Amidine-oximes were tested in vivo for protection against the toxicity of nerve agent model compounds. (i.e., a model of Sarin). Post-treatment (i.e., 5 min after OP exposure, i.p,) with amidine oximes 7a-c and 12a, 12c, 12e, 12f, and 15b (145 μmol/kg, i.p.) protected 100% of the mice challenged with the sarin model compound. Even at 25% of the initial dose of amidine-oxime (i.e., a dose of 36 μmol/kg, i.p.), 7b and 12e protected 100% of the animals challenged with the sarin nerve agent model compound that caused lethality in 6/11 animals without amidine-oxime. © 2011 American Chemical Society.


Cashman J.R.,Human BioMolecular Research Institute | Azar M.R.,Behavioral Pharma Inc.
Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics | Year: 2014

A substituted aryl amide derivative of 6-naltrexamine - 17-cyclopropylmethyl- 3,14β-dihydroxy-4,5α-epoxy-6β-[(4′- trimethylfluoro) benzamido]morphinan-hydrochloride - (compound 5), previously shown to be a potent κ-opioid receptor antagonist, was used to characterize the physicochemical properties and efficacy to decrease alcohol self-administration in alcohol-preferring rats (P-rats) and binge-like P-rats. Previous studies showed that compounds closely related to compound 5 possessed favorable properties regarding penetration of the blood-brain barrier. Pharmacokinetic studies showed that compound 5 had acceptable bioavailability. In contrast to other κ-receptor antagonists, in particular norbinaltorphimine, compound 5 showed favorable drug-like properties. Based on these findings, further studies were done. Safety studies showed that compound 5 was not hepatotoxic at doses 200-fold greater than an efficacious dose. The effects of compound 5 or naltrexone on the hepatotoxicity of thiobenzamide were investigated. In contrast to naltrexone, which exacerbated thiobenzamide- mediated hepatotoxicity, compound 5 was observed to be hepatoprotective. Based on the physicochemical properties of compound 5, the compound was examined in rat animal models of alcohol self-administration. The inhibition of ethanol self-administration by compound 5 in alcohol-dependent and alcohol-nondependent P-rats trained to self-administer a 10% (w/v) ethanol solution, using operant techniques, showed very potent efficacy (i.e., estimated ED50 values of 4-5 μg/kg). In a binge-like P-rat animal model, inhibition of alcohol self-administration by compound 5 had an estimated ED50 value of 8 μg/kg. The results suggest that compound 5 is a potent drug-like κ-opioid receptor antagonist of utility in alcohol cessation medications development. Copyright © 2014 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.


Chen S.,Human BioMolecular Research Institute | Zhang J.,Human BioMolecular Research Institute | Lumley L.,U.S. Army | Cashman J.R.,Human BioMolecular Research Institute
Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics | Year: 2013

A major challenge in organophosphate (OP) research has been the identification and utilization of reliable biomarkers for the rapid, sensitive, and efficient detection of OP exposure. Although Tyr 411 OP adducts to human serum albumin (HSA) have been suggested to be one of the most robust biomarkers in the detection of OP exposure, the analysis of HSA-OP adduct detection has been limited to techniques using mass spectrometry. Herein, we describe the procurement of two monoclonal antibodies (mAb-HSA-GD and mAb-HSA-VX) that recognized the HSA Tyr 411 adduct of soman (GD) or S-[2-(diisopropylamino) ethyl]-O-ethyl methylphosphonothioate (VX), respectively, but did not recognize nonphosphonylated HSA. We showed that mAb-HSA-GD was able to detect the HSA Tyr 411 OP adduct at a low level (i.e., human blood plasma treated with 180 nM GD) that could not be detected by mass spectrometry. mAb-HSAGD and mAb-HSA-VX showed an extremely low-level detection of GD adducted to HSA (on the order of picograms). mAb-HSAGD could also detect serum albumin OP adducts in blood plasma samples from different animals administered GD, including rats, guinea pigs, and monkeys. The ability of the two antibodies to selectively recognize nerve agents adducted to serum albumin suggests that these antibodies could be used to identify biomarkers of OP exposure and provide a new biologic approach to detect OP exposure in animals. Copyright © 2013 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.


Kalisiak J.,Human BioMolecular Research Institute | Ralph E.C.,Human BioMolecular Research Institute | Zhang J.,Human BioMolecular Research Institute | Cashman J.R.,Human BioMolecular Research Institute
Journal of Medicinal Chemistry | Year: 2011

Figure Presented. Figure presented. A new class of amidine-oxime reactivators of organophosphate (OP)-inhibited cholinesterases (ChE) were designed, synthesized, and tested. These compounds represent a novel group of oximes with enhanced capabilities of crossing the blood-brain barrier. Lack of brain penetration is a major limitation for currently used oximes as antidotes of OP poisoning. The concept described herein relies on a combination of an amidine residue and oxime functionality whereby the amidine increases the binding affinity to the ChE and the oxime is responsible for reactivation. Amidine-oximes were tested in vitro and reactivation rates for OP-BuChE were greater than pralidoxime (2-PAM) or monoisonitrosoacetone (MINA). Amidine-oxime reactivation rates for OP-AChE were lower compared to 2-PAM but greater compared with MINA. After pretreatment for 30 min with oximes 15c and 15d (145 μmol/kg, ip) mice were challenged with a soman model compound. In addition, 15d was tested in a post-treatment experiment (145 μmol/kg, ip, administration 5 min after sarin model compound exposure). In both cases, amidine-oximes afforded 100% 24 h survival in an animal model of OP exposure. © 2011 American Chemical Society.


Patent
Human Biomolecular Research Institute and Sanford Burnham Institute for Medical Research | Date: 2011-05-13

Methods and small molecule compounds for stem cell differentiation are provided. One example of a class of compounds that may be used is represented by the compound of Formula I: or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt or solvate thereof, wherein R^(1), R^(2), R^(3), R^(4), R^(5), R^(5), R^(6), R^(6), R^(7), R^(7) are as described herein.


Patent
Human Biomolecular Research Institute | Date: 2014-03-17

Compositions of small molecules, matrices, and isolated cells including methods of preparation, and methods for differentiation, transdifferentiation, and proliferation of animal cells into the osteoblast blast cell lineage were described. Examples of osteogenic materials that were administered to cells or co-cultured with cells are represented by compounds of Formula II, IV, and VI independently or preferably in combination with a matrix to afford bone cells. Small molecule-stimulated cells were also combined with a matrix, placed with a cellular adhesive or material carrier and implanted to a site in an animal for bone repair. Matrix pretreated with compounds of Formula II, IV, and VI were also used to cause cells to migrate to the matrix that is of use for therapeutic purposes.


Grant
Agency: Department of Health and Human Services | Branch: | Program: STTR | Phase: Phase I | Award Amount: 240.56K | Year: 2014

Project Summary/Abstract Developing new ways to treat pancreatic cancer is a significant challenge. Pancreatic cancer is the fourth leading cause of cancer-related deaths in the United States and results in an estimated 37,000 deaths/year. Pancreatic cancer therapeutic options are limited to surgery and/or combinations of chemotherapy and radiation. Unfortunately, late-stage diagnosis of pancreatic cancer renders current therapies ineffective. The effectiveness of relatively new targeted treatments remainsto be shown. There is an urgent major unmet medical need for the development of selective treatments for pancreatic cancer. Our new approach to pancreatic cancer is completely different and focuses on inhibition of a key molecular pathway. We have discovered and optimized a small molecule (i.e., 2) that selectively and potently inhibits a key molecular pathway. The overall Goal is to test this novel small molecule as an inhibitor to suppress pancreatic cancer progression by targeting a key signaling path


Patent
Human Biomolecular Research Institute | Date: 2011-08-05

Methods and small molecule compounds for smoking and CNS disease harm reduction are provided. One example of a class of compounds that may be used is represented by the compound having the structure IA or IB in the form of free base or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt, hydrate or solvate thereof:


Patent
Human Biomolecular Research Institute | Date: 2010-08-02

Disclosed are nicotine-related compounds that selectively inhibit cytochrome P-450 2A6 (CYP2A6), selectively inhibit cytochrome P-450 2A13 (CYP2A13), and/or selectively modulate a nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR). Also disclosed are pharmaceutical compositions comprising a compound of the invention, as well as methods of using the pharmaceutical compositions for treating or preventing a disease or disorder associated with nicotine-ingestion, or a disease or disorder amenable to treatment by selective modulation of nAChRs.


Patent
Human Biomolecular Research Institute | Date: 2012-05-01

Disclosed are agents having pharmacological activity against cellular receptors and intracellular signaling, particularly receptors and signaling pathways of central nervous system (CNS) neurotransmitters. Also disclosed are related methods and compositions for the treatment or prevention of diseases or disorders using the agents.

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