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Carter S.,Hull Research and Technology Center | Fisher A.S.,University of Plymouth | Goodall P.S.,British Nuclear Fuels Limited | Hinds M.W.,Royal Canadian Mint | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Analytical Atomic Spectrometry | Year: 2010

It is a noticeable trend over the last couple of review periods that the number and quality of nuclear applications has been increasing. That trend has continued into this year. Semiconductors and other electronic components continue to become smaller and utilise more pure materials; hence analysing them becomes more difficult. This is especially true when depth-resolved data is required. Techniques capable of analysing with ever increasing depth resolution are therefore necessary and many studies into this have been reported. There is still a large interest in the non-destructive analysis of archaeological or historical materials (glasses, ceramics, paintings etc.). The use of solid sampling techniques that cause minimal damage is therefore still gaining in popularity. This is especially true for laser-based techniques such as LIBS and laser ablation, although the many variants of the X-ray-based techniques are also still proving very popular. The increasing trend to use multiple analytical techniques, ideally simultaneously to cause minimal damage and to obtain the maximal number of results in the shortest time, is also noted. These attempts to obtain maximum information are, again, mainly true for historical artefacts where obtaining more analytical information will lead to a better understanding of provenance, manufacturing process, etc.The real time analysis being undertaken in engines and at coal fired boilers is also an interesting development. These real time analyses allow monitoring of the systems and enable any deviations from peak performance to be identified and corrected in the shortest time possible. © 2010 The Royal Society of Chemistry. Source


Carter S.,Hull Research and Technology Center | Fisher A.S.,University of Plymouth | Hinds M.W.,Royal Canadian Mint | Lancaster S.,Domino UK Ltd
Journal of Analytical Atomic Spectrometry | Year: 2012

This review period has shown several areas of growth. The increase in popularity of LIBS continues as the problems, both real and perceived, that are associated with it (e.g., that it is capable only of qualitative analyses) are overcome. The area that appears to have seen the greatest increase in LIBS work is the nuclear industry. Presumably this is because of the stand-off ability of the technique. Another technique that is increasing in popularity is continuum source AAS. This has found substantial use in several areas of the review, notably the fuels and the organic chemicals sections. As noted in the review, the technique allows similar multi-elemental detection to ICP-OES (albeit at lower sensitivity), but at AAS running costs and is therefore likely to remain a popular technique. The necessity of causing no or minimal damage to forensic samples and for samples of archaeological or historical importance is still paramount. Therefore, micro-sampling techniques such as LIBS, LA and various X-ray-based techniques are still popular. Since the reliability of the data obtained from hand-held/portable XRF instruments has improved significantly in recent times, the use of these can be regarded as almost routine. Also noted in the review is the propensity for using multiple techniques, often simultaneously, to characterize materials more fully and more rapidly. This is the latest review covering atomic spectrometric measurements of industrial materials, metals, chemicals and advanced materials. It follows on from last year's review1 and should be read in conjunction with other reviews in the series.2-5 This year has seen the departure of Sian Shore from the writing team. Her efforts over the last few years have been very much appreciated. © 2012 The Royal Society of Chemistry. Source


Raftari M.,University of Sheffield | Raftari M.,George Washington University | Zhang Z.,University of Sheffield | Zhang Z.,University of Strathclyde | And 4 more authors.
Soft Matter | Year: 2014

The frictional behaviour of end-grafted poly[2-(dimethyl amino)ethyl methacrylate] films (brushes) has been shown by friction force microscopy to be a strong function of pH in aqueous solution. Data were acquired using bare silicon nitride and gold-coated tips, and gold coated probes that were functionalized by the deposition of self-assembled monolayers. At the extremes of pH (pH = 1, 2, and 12), the friction-load relationship was found to be linear, in agreement with Amontons' law of macroscopic friction. However, at intermediate pH values, the data were fitted by single asperity contact mechanics models; both Johnson-Kendall-Roberts (JKR) and Derjaguin-Muller- Toporov models were observed, with JKR behaviour fitting the data better at relatively neutral pH. © 2014 the Partner Organisations. Source


Carter S.,Hull Research and Technology Center | Fisher A.S.,University of Plymouth | Hinds M.W.,Royal Canadian Mint | Lancaster S.,Domino Printing science Ltd | Marshall J.,University of Glasgow
Journal of Analytical Atomic Spectrometry | Year: 2013

This review period has seen some changes to the format of the review. These changes are intended to more accurately reflect the current state of analytical research in the analysis of metals, chemicals and materials. As a consequence, the title of the review and some of the section headings have been altered to reflect this. Significant areas of growth include the use of LIBS in remote analysis, especially of explosives and nuclear materials. The stand-off capability of the technique makes it very desirable in these areas. The use of chemometrics and procedures for removing substrate interferences are proving to be effective in making the technique more quantitative. It is also beginning to be reported for use in Process Analysis in the pharmaceuticals industry and has been employed to investigate the processes occurring within an engine and to model the processes occurring in explosions. The analysis of archaeological, cultural heritage and art objects continues to be a significant area of research, with some interesting developments in multi-analytical techniques which are employed to yield maximum information with as little disruption to the object as possible. Similarly, the high resolution capabilities of synchrotron radiation are being increasingly employed for high value objects where the cost of the analysis is outweighed by the benefits. In the field of materials analysis, the development of techniques for investigating the growth of novel material structures is a significant activity, e.g., the nucleation of alpha Alumina via titania templates, studied using a range of techniques. Papers outlining advances in the use of asymmetric field flow fractionation with a multi-detection approach for the characterisation of particle size and size distribution are reviewed as is a comparison of hydrodynamic chromatography with AFFF. Papers dealing with single particle analysis are also reviewed. The catalyst section is shorter than in previous reviews and this reflects the fact that fewer new developments in analytical chemistry are being published. The emphasis is on advances in the analysis of catalyst materials. This is the latest review covering advances in atomic spectrometric measurements of metals, chemicals and materials. It follows on from last year's review1 and should be read in conjunction with other reviews in the series.2-5 This year will be the last time that Mike Hinds will write for the review. His contribution over many years has been very significant and greatly appreciated. We welcome John Marshall to the writing team. © 2013 The Royal Society of Chemistry. Source


Carter S.,Hull Research and Technology Center | Fisher A.S.,University of Plymouth | Goodall P.S.,British Nuclear Fuels Limited | Hinds M.W.,Royal Canadian Mint | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Analytical Atomic Spectrometry | Year: 2011

There is considerable interest in the non-destructive analysis of archaeological or historical materials (glasses, ceramics, paintings, materials etc.). The use of solid sampling techniques that cause minimal damage is therefore still gaining in popularity. This is especially true for laser-based techniques such as LIBS and laser ablation, although the many variants of the X-ray-based techniques are also still proving very popular. Non-destructive analysis is also the ideal scenario for forensic scientists and therefore many of these applications are using similar techniques. The increasing trend to use multiple analytical techniques, ideally simultaneously, to cause minimal damage and to obtain the maximal number of results in the shortest time, is also noted. The technique of LIBS, which offers minimal sample damage and a "stand-off" capability is still gaining in popularity, although there are still question marks regarding its quantitative capabilities for some sample types. There is also considerable interest in the growing area of thin films and depth-profiling. Substantial research is on-going to develop methods to improve depth-resolution and several different approaches have been described in the literature. These approaches often use SIMS with either a lower energy primary beam or a primary beam consisting of polyatomic molecules. © 2011 The Royal Society of Chemistry. Source

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