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Killick S.R.,University of Hull | Killick S.R.,Hull IVF Unit | Leary C.,University of Hull | Leary C.,Hull IVF Unit | And 3 more authors.
Human Fertility | Year: 2011

This study was designed to establish whether motile spermatozoa are released with pre-ejaculatory fluid and whether this fluid therefore poses a risk for unintended pregnancy. Forty samples of pre-ejaculatory fluid were examined from 27 volunteer men. Samples were obtained by masturbation and by touching the end of the penis with a Petri dish prior to ejaculation. Eleven of the 27 subjects (41%) produced pre-ejaculatory samples that contained spermatozoa and in 10 of these cases (37%), a reasonable proportion of the sperm was motile. The volunteers produced on up to five separate occasions and sperms were found in either all or none of their pre-ejaculatory samples. Hence, condoms should continue to be used from the first moment of genital contact, although it may be that some men, less likely to leak spermatozoa in their pre-ejaculatory fluid, are able to practice coitus interruptus more successfully than others. © 2011 The British Fertitlity Society.

Dickerson E.H.,Hull IVF Unit | Sathyapalan T.,University of Hull | Sathyapalan T.,Royal Infirmary | Knight R.,University of Hull | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Assisted Reproduction and Genetics | Year: 2011

Purpose: There is increasing concern that environmental chemicals have a direct effect on fertility. Heavy metals such as mercury have been shown to affect various organ systems in humans including nervous system and skin, however they could also act as endocrine disrupting chemicals adversely affecting fertility. Metals such as zinc and selenium are essential micronutrients with diverse functions that may be important for reproductive outcomes. We measured mercury, zinc and selenium levels in the hair, a reliable reflection of long term environmental exposure and dietary status, to correlate with the outcome of ovarian hyperstimulation for in vitro fertilisation (IVF) treatment. Methods: We analysed the hair of 30 subfertile women for mercury, zinc and selenium using inductively coupled mass spectrometry. Each woman underwent one cycle of IVF treatment. Correlation between the levels of these trace metals and treatment outcomes was investigated. Results: Thirty women were recruited with mean (±SD) age of 32.7(4.4) years and BMI of 25.4(5.0)kg/m 2. Hair mercury concentration showed a negative correlation with oocyte yield (p∈<∈0.05,βcoefficient 0.38) and follicle number (p∈=∈0.03,β coefficient0.19) after ovarian stimulation. Zinc and selenium levels in hair correlated positively with oocyte yield after ovarian stimulation (p∈<∈0.05,β coefficient0.15) and (p∈=∈0.03,β coefficient0.21) respectively. Selenium levels in hair correlated significantly with follicle number following stimulation (p∈=∈0.04, βcoefficient0.22). There was no correlation between mercury, zinc and selenium in hair and their corresponding serum levels. Conclusion: These data suggest that mercury had a deleterious effect whilst there was a positive effect for zinc and selenium in the ovarian response to gonadotrophin therapy for IVF. Hair analysis offers a novel method of investigating the impact of long-term exposure to endocrine disruptors and nutritional status on reproductive outcomes. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

Dickerson E.H.,University of Hull | Cho L.W.,University of Hull | Maguiness S.D.,Hull IVF Unit | Killick S.L.,Hull IVF Unit | And 2 more authors.
Human Reproduction | Year: 2010

Background: The dual effects of insulin and androgen on the ovary act to promote early folliculogenesis. In the context of polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS), the presence of hyperinsulinaemia, resulting from increased insulin resistance (IR), and hyperandrogenaemia lead to the appearance of multiple antral follicles and frequently a multi-folliclular response to gonadotrophin stimulation for assisted reproductive treatments (ARTs). The effect of IR and androgen status in women without PCOS on the follicular outcome of controlled ovarian hyperstimulation (COH) is not known. Methods: We assessed the IR [using the homeostasis model assessment (HOMA)] and androgen status of 49 women without PCOS undergoing an ART cycle. This was then related to the treatment cycle outcome. Results: We found a significant positive correlation between HOMA and BMI, and free androgen index (FAI) and testosterone. The FAI significantly positively correlated with total follicle count after COH. The total follicle count was significantly higher in those with a HOMA >2.5, and HOMA positively correlated with total follicle count in this group of IR women (HOMA > 2.5). Conclusions: Our Results: suggest a positive correlation of HOMA-IR levels above a threshold level of 2.5 and a continuous positive correlation of free androgen (FAI) to total ovarian follicle count following COH in the non-PCOS patient.

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