Huitong National Research Station of Forest Ecosystem

Huitong, China

Huitong National Research Station of Forest Ecosystem

Huitong, China

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Chen L.-C.,CAS Shenyang Institute of Applied Ecology | Chen L.-C.,Huitong National Research Station of Forest Ecosystem | Wang S.-L.,CAS Shenyang Institute of Applied Ecology | Wang S.-L.,Huitong National Research Station of Forest Ecosystem
Forestry | Year: 2013

Allelopathy of Chinese fir [Cunninghamia lanceolata (Lamb.) Hook.] has been considered an important cause of productivity decline in successive rotations in Chinese fir plantations. Growth of Chinese fir germinants was measured to understand the allelopathic potential of its leaves and roots, as well as its rhizosphere soil, from different plantation ages. Results show that aqueous extracts from Chinese fir leaves and roots and rhizosphere soil significantly inhibited the growth of germinants. Leaf aqueous extracts showed the strongest inhibitory effects indicating that allelochemicals were produced by the leaf and released into the soil through the roots. Leaf and the root aqueous extracts, as well as the rhizosphere soil, from older Chinese fir plantations exhibited stronger allelopathic potential. Tissue aqueous extract from a 27-year-old Chinese fir showed stronger inhibitory effects on the growth of germinants compared with that from a 3-year-old one. More cyclic dipeptides were found in the leaf aqueous extract; and even more were found in the tissue aqueous extract and in the rhizosphere soil from older plantations. This suggests that more cyclic dipeptides are produced by leaves and released into the soil through the root exudation as Chinese fir plantations increase in age. © Institute of Chartered Foresters, 2012. All rights reserved..


Wang Q.,CAS Shenyang Institute of Applied Ecology | Wang S.,CAS Shenyang Institute of Applied Ecology | Wang S.,Huitong National Research Station of Forest Ecosystem
Applied Soil Ecology | Year: 2011

Labile soil organic matter (SOM) can sensitively respond to changes in land use and management practices, and has been suggested as an early and sensitive indicator of SOM. However, knowledge of effects of forest vegetation type on labile SOM is still scarce, particularly in subtropical regions. Soil microbial biomass C and N, water-soluble soil organic C and N, and light SOM fraction in four subtropical forests were studied in subtropical China. Forest vegetation type significantly affected labile SOM. Secondary broadleaved forest (SBF) had the highest soil microbial biomass, basal respiration and water-soluble SOM, and the pure Cunninghamia lanceolata plantation (PC) the lowest. Soil microbial biomass C and N and respiration were on average 100%, 104% and 75%, respectively higher in the SBF than in the PC. The influence of vegetation on water-soluble SOM was generally larger in the 0-10cm soil layer than in the 10-20cm. Cold- and hot-water-soluble organic C and N were on average 33-70% higher in the SBF than in the PC. Cold- and hot-soluble soil organic C concentrations in the coniferous-broadleaved mixed plantations were on average 38.1 and 25.0% higher than in the pure coniferous plantation, and cold- and hot-soluble soil total N were 51.4 and 14.1% higher, respectively. Therefore, introducing native broadleaved trees into pure coniferous plantations increased water-soluble SOM. The light SOM fraction (free and occluded) in the 0-10cm soil layer, which ranged from 11.7 to 29.2gkg-1 dry weight of soil, was strongly affected by vegetation. The light fraction soil organic C, expressed as percent of total soil organic C, ranged from 18.3% in the mixed plantations of C. lanceolata and Kalopanax septemlobus to 26.3% in the SBF. In addition, there were strong correlations among soil organic C and labile fractions, suggesting that they were in close association and partly represented similar C pools in soils. Our results indicated that hot-water-soluble method could be a suitable measure for labile SOM in subtropical forest soils. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.


Wang Q.,CAS Shenyang Institute of Applied Ecology | Wang S.,CAS Shenyang Institute of Applied Ecology | Yu X.,Huitong National Research Station of Forest Ecosystem
Land Degradation and Development | Year: 2011

The effects of forest conversion on soil fertility are still not well understood in subtropical zones. This issue was addressed by comparing chemical properties of soil in a secondary forest and a Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata Hooker) plantation at the Huitong Experimental Station of Forest Ecology. Total N, available P, NO 3 --N, cation exchange capacity (CEC) and exchangeable Al 3+ and H + of soil were significantly lower in the pure Chinese fir plantation (PCP) than in the secondary forest while soil organic carbon (SOC), total K and exchangeable Na + had a tendency to decrease in the PCP. In contrast, soil pH and percentage base saturation (PBS) significantly increased due to forest conversion, and available K, NH 4 + and exchangeable Ca 2+, Mg 2+ and K + tended to increase in the PCP. Some underlying processes responsible for the differences in soil fertility between the secondary forest and the Chinese fir plantation were low litterfall and root input to soil and site preparation in coniferous plantations. There was no significant difference in the effect of slope position on chemical properties of soil in the PCP and the secondary forest. Results indicated that the conversion of secondary forests to coniferous plantations leads to a decline in soil fertility. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.


Wang Q.,CAS Shenyang Institute of Applied Ecology | Wang Q.,Huitong National Research Station of Forest Ecosystem | Zhong M.,CAS Shenyang Institute of Applied Ecology | Zhong M.,University of Chinese Academy of Sciences | And 2 more authors.
Biology and Fertility of Soils | Year: 2013

Litter decomposition is a major fundamental ecological process that regulates nutrient cycling, thereby affecting net ecosystem carbon (C) storage as well as primary productivity in forest ecosystems. Litter decomposes in its home environment faster than in any other environment. However, evidence for this phenomenon, which is called the home-field advantage (HFA), has not been universal. We provide the first HFA quantification of litter decomposition and nutrient release through meta-analysis of published data in global forest ecosystems. Litter mass loss was 4. 2 % faster on average, whereas nitrogen (N) release was 1. 7 % lower at the home environment than in another environment. However, no HFA of phosphorus (P) release was observed. Broadleaf litter (4.4 %) had a higher litter mass loss HFA than coniferous litter (1.0 %). The positive HFA of N release was found in the coniferous litter. Mass loss HFA was significantly and negatively correlated with the initial lignin:N litter ratio. The litter decomposition and N release HFAs were obtained when mesh size ranged from 0.15 mm to 2.0 mm. The HFA of litter decomposition increased with decomposition duration during the early decomposition stage. The HFA of N release was well correlated with mass loss, and the greatest HFA was at mass loss less than 20 %. Our results suggest that the litter decomposition and N release HFAs are widespread in forest ecosystems. Furthermore, soil mesofauna is significantly involved in the HFA of litter decomposition. © 2012 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.


Wang Q.-K.,CAS Shenyang Institute of Applied Ecology | Wang Q.-K.,Huitong National Research Station of Forest Ecosystem | Wang S.-L.,CAS Shenyang Institute of Applied Ecology | Wang S.-L.,Huitong National Research Station of Forest Ecosystem | And 2 more authors.
Plant and Soil | Year: 2013

Background and aims: Across the world, about 264 million ha forest plantations are monospecific. This practice has been found to cause site productivity and soil fertility decline in the regions where forests have been harvested several times. To mitigate these problems, mixed-species plantations, especially with broadleaved and coniferous species, are preferred. Understanding the effects of introducing broadleaved tree in monospecific coniferous plantation on ecosystem carbon (C) storage and soil organic C (SOC) stability is critical to improve our understanding of forest C sequestration and C cycle. Methods: Plots were established in subtropical plantations with a randomized block design to examine the influence of introducing Michelia macclurei trees into pure Cunninghamia lanceolata plantation on biomass C storage, SOC storage of total, labile, and recalcitrant fractions (0-40 cm depth), and SOC stability. Results: Introducing M. macclurei trees increased biomass C by 17.9 % and 14.2 % compared with monospecific C. lanceolata and M. macclurei plantations, respectively. Storage of different SOC fractions was not significantly different between monospecific C. lanceolata and mixed plantations. SOC stability in bulk soils was not affected, although it differed in 10-20 cm and 20-40 cm soil depth among three plantations. Conclusions: Mixed species plantations can increase C sequestration, and in the subtropical forest ecosystem examined this was mainly attributed to an increase in biomass C. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.


Zhang W.,CAS Shenyang Institute of Applied Ecology | Zhang W.,Huitong National Research Station of Forest Ecosystem | Wang S.,CAS Shenyang Institute of Applied Ecology | Wang S.,Huitong National Research Station of Forest Ecosystem
Soil Biology and Biochemistry | Year: 2012

Soil organic carbon (SOC) dynamics and nutrient availability determine the soil quality and fertility in a Chinese fir plantation forest in subtropical China. Uniformly 13C-labeled Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata) and alder (Alnus cremastogyne) leaf litter with or without 100mg NH 4 + or NO 3 - were added to the soil. The purpose was to investigate the influence of N availability on the decomposition of the litter and native SOC. The production of CO 2, the natural abundance of 13C-CO 2, and the inorganic N dynamics were monitored. The results showed that Chinese fir (with a high C:N ratio) and alder (with a low C:N ratio) leaf litter caused significant positive priming effects (PEs) of 24% and 42%, respectively, at the end of the experiment (235d). The PE dynamics showed that positive PE can last for at least 87d. However, the possible occurrence of a significant negative PE with a sufficient incubation period is difficult to confirm. The application of both NH 4 + and NO 3 - was found to have a stimulating effect on the decomposition of Chinese fir and alder leaf litter in the early stage (0-15d) of incubation, but an adverse effect in the late stage. Compared with NO 3 -, NH 4 + caused a greater decrease in the PE induced by both Chinese fir and alder leaf litter. The effects of NH 4 + and NO 3 - on the PE dynamics had different patterns for different incubation stages. This result may indicate that the stability or recalcitrance of SOC, especially in such plantation forest soils, strongly depends on available leaf litter and application of N to the soil. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.


Zhang W.,CAS Shenyang Institute of Applied Ecology | Zhang W.,Huitong National Research Station of Forest Ecosystem | Wang X.,CAS Shenyang Institute of Applied Ecology | Wang X.,Huitong National Research Station of Forest Ecosystem | And 3 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

Background: Extensive studies have been conducted to evaluate the effect of external organic Carbon on native soil organic carbon (SOC) decomposition. However, the direction and extent of this effect reported by different authors is inconsistent. Objective: The objective was to provide a synthesis of existing data that comprehensively and quantitatively evaluates how the soil chemical properties and incubation conditions interact with additional external organic C to affect the native SOC decomposition. Data Source: A meta-analysis was conducted on previously published empirical studies that examined the effect of the addition of external organic carbon on the native SOC decomposition through isotopic techniques. Results and Conclusions: The addition of external organic C, when averaged across all studies, enhanced the native SOC decomposition by 26.5%. The soil with higher SOC content and fine texture showed significantly higher priming effects, whereas the soil with higher total nitrogen content showed an opposite trend. The soils with higher C:N ratios had significantly stronger priming effects than those with low C:N ratios. The decomposition of native SOC was significantly enhanced more at early stage of incubation (<15d) than at the later stages (>15d). In addition, the incubation temperature and the addition rate of organic matter significantly influenced the native SOC decomposition in response to the addition of external organic C. © 2013 Zhang et al.


Wang Q.,CAS Shenyang Institute of Applied Ecology | Wang Q.,Huitong National Research Station of Forest Ecosystem | Zhong M.,CAS Shenyang Institute of Applied Ecology | Zhong M.,University of Chinese Academy of Sciences | And 2 more authors.
Forest Ecology and Management | Year: 2012

The effects of fire on labile soil C and N in forest ecosystems are important for understanding C sequestration and N cycling not only because labile soil C and N are often variables that determine soil fertility but also because the role of soils as a source or sink for C is important on an ecosystem and on the regional level. In the current study, the literature on the effects of fire on soil organic C, total N, microbial biomass C and N, dissolved organic C, and total N, respiration, and N mineralization in mineral soil was reviewed, and the results of a meta-analysis on literature data were reported. Overall, fire significantly increased the soil total N, microbial biomass N, dissolved organic C, and total N, but decreased soil organic C, microbial biomass C, respiration and N mineralization. Among the significant effects of different fire types, wildfire had the higher effects on the soil organic C, total N, microbial biomass C and N, dissolved total N and respiration of soil than prescribed fire. In addition, responses of soil organic C, total N and N mineralization to wildfire depended on forest type and natural zone. Positive responses of soil organic C, total N were found in broadleaved forests and Mediterranean zones, and negative responses in coniferous forests and temperate zones. Wildfire significantly decreased N mineralization in coniferous forests. The effects of fire on soil microbial biomass C and N, dissolved organic C and N mineralization generally decreased with time after the fire. In general, the effects of fire on soil organic C, microbial biomass C, and dissolved total N and N mineralization decreased with increasing soil depth. These results suggest that fire increases C and N availability and increases microbial activity, which consequently decreases the potential rates of C sequestration. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.


Wang Q.,CAS Shenyang Institute of Applied Ecology | Wang Q.,Huitong National Research Station of Forest Ecosystem | He T.,CAS Shenyang Institute of Applied Ecology | He T.,University of Chinese Academy of Sciences | And 3 more authors.
Agricultural and Forest Meteorology | Year: 2013

We determined the effects of aboveground and belowground C inputs on soil CO2 efflux and microbial community composition by phospholipid fatty acids using aboveground litter addition or removal and root trenching in a subtropical forest in Southern China. From January 2011 to December 2011, soil respiration varied with the seasonal changes in soil temperature and water content, but its pattern was not altered by C input manipulation. The effects of C input manipulation on the temperature sensitivity of soil respiration was season-dependent, which were greater in the dormant season than in the growing season. Litter addition increased the soil respiration by 33% compared with the control, whereas litter removal decreased it by 22.6%. Root trenching decreased soil respiration by 20.4%. Aboveground litter decomposition, root and rhizosphere respiration, and mineral soil respiration contributed to 22.3%, 20.1%, and 57.6% of total soil CO2 efflux, respectively. We also found that increase in soil CO2 efflux induced by litter addition was 10.4% greater than decrease by litter removal. Litter removal increased 21.6% of the concentration of Gram-positive bacteria and decreased 32.8% of the bacteria to fungi ratio, compared with the control. Root trenching increased the concentrations of bacteria, fungi, and actinomycetes by 28.8%, 161.2% and 32.5%, respectively, but decreased the Gram-negative to Gram-positive bacteria and the bacteria to fungi ratios by 57.4% and 107.9%. C input treatment did not increase the Gram-positive bacteria but nor decreased the Gram-negative to Gram-positive bacteria ratio. The concentration of the 16:0 PLFA and the Gram-negative to Gram-positive bacteria ratio were significantly correlated with soil respiration. These results suggest that root C input has greater influence on soil microbial community composition than the aboveground litter C input. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.


Wang Q.,CAS Shenyang Institute of Applied Ecology | Wang Q.,Huitong National Research Station of Forest Ecosystem | Wang Y.,Shandong Agricultural University | Wang S.,CAS Shenyang Institute of Applied Ecology | And 4 more authors.
Soil Biology and Biochemistry | Year: 2014

In terrestrial ecosystems, deep soils are a major reservoir of organic carbon (C). Improving knowledge of how deep soil organic carbon (SOC) mineralization responds to fresh C supply and nitrogen (N) availability is essential to better understand whether this C pool will react to climate change. However, little is known about the effects of C and N inputs on SOC mineralization and microbial communities in forest deep soils. To quantify the effects of C and N inputs on SOC mineralization, we apply two species of 13C-labeled leaf litters and ammonium chloride solution while incubating soils collected from 60cm to 70cm depth in a coniferous forest in subtropical China. The soil phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) profiles are also determined to establish the effects of C and N supply on microbial community structure, and the δ13C in PLFAs is used to establish pathways of leaf litter-derived C flux among microbial communities. The addition of leaf litters stimulates deep SOC mineralization, indicating that the stability of deep SOC is attributed to a lack of fresh C input, but the addition of Michelia macclurei litter with higher C:P ratio has a greater positive priming effect than adding Pinus massoniana litter. N addition reduces the magnitude of positive priming and alters the direction of priming in soils with P.massoniana litter addition, suggesting that N deposition may suppress deep SOC mineralization and favor the maintenance of SOC storage. Leaf litter addition enhances the biomass of individual PLFA and increases the fungi:bacteria ratio, suggesting that microbes are limited by energy and that soil microbial community composition is modified by C inputs. N addition decreases the fungi:bacteria ratio, but increases the Gram-positive:Gram-negative bacteria ratio. The highest 13C-enrichment and distribution of litter-derived C are found in 16:0 and 18:1ω9c PLFAs, but litter species and N addition do not affect total PLFA-C and litter-derived PLFA-C. These results support the views that a lack of fresh C supply and N deposition may prevent the mineralization of SOC pool in deep layers and that the utilization of labile substrate by 16:0 and 18:1ω9c populations promotes positive SOC priming. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

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