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Östermalm, Sweden

Granlund D.,HUI Research | Granlund D.,Umea University | Koksal-Ayhan M.Y.,Gothenburg University
European Journal of Health Economics | Year: 2015

What has been the effect of competition from parallel imports on prices of locally sourced on-patent drugs? Did the 2002 Swedish mandatory substitution reform increase this competition? To answer these questions, we carried out difference-in-differences estimation on monthly data for a panel of all locally sourced on-patent prescription drugs sold in Sweden during the 40 months from January 2001 to April 2004. On average, facing competition from parallel imports caused a 15–17 % fall in price. While the reform increased the effect of competition from parallel imports, it was only by 0.9 %. The reform, however, did increase the effect of therapeutic competition by 1.6 %. © 2014, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. Source

Brandt D.,Dalarna University | Macuchova Z.,Dalarna University | Rudholm N.,Dalarna University | Rudholm N.,HUI Research
Annals of Regional Science | Year: 2014

Firm entry into local markets has often been studied using administrative areas such as municipalities as the assumed relevant markets. However, administrative areas and the actual relevant markets based on local demand for firms’ products often do not coincide, which could bias the results of studies treating administrative areas as the relevant markets. Based on a behavioral assumption regarding how retailers act when purchasing products from wholesale trade firms, we create alternative markets using Voronoi diagrams. We then compare the empirical results of investigating the determinants of firm entry using municipalities as the relevant markets with the results obtained using Voronoi markets. The results indicate that, in both cases, the same variables are statistically significant in affecting entry, though the estimated effects differ in size. © 2014, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. Source

Carling K.,Dalarna University | Han M.,Dalarna University | Hakansson J.,Dalarna University | Meng X.,Dalarna University | And 2 more authors.
Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment | Year: 2015

We develop a method for empirically measuring the difference in transport related carbon footprint between traditional and online retailing ("e-tailing") from entry point to a geographical area to consumer residence. The method only requires data on the locations of brick-and-mortar stores, online delivery points, and residences of the region's population, and on the goods transportation networks in the studied region. Such data are readily available in most countries. The method has been evaluated using data from the Dalecarlia region in Sweden, and is shown to be robust to all assumptions made. In our empirical example, the results indicate that the average distance from consumer residence to a brick-and-mortar retailer is 48.54km in the studied region, while the average distance to an online delivery point is 6.7km. The results also indicate that e-tailing increases the average distance traveled from the regional entry point to the delivery point from 47.15km for a brick-and-mortar store to 122.75km for the online delivery points. However, as professional carriers transport the products in bulk to stores or online delivery points, which is more efficient than consumers' transporting the products to their residences, the results indicate that consumers switching from traditional to e-tailing on average reduce their transport CO2 footprints by 84% when buying standard consumer electronics products. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Stenkula M.,Research Institute of Industrial Economics IFN | Johansson D.,Orebro University | Johansson D.,HUI Research | Du Rietz G.,Research Institute of Industrial Economics IFN
Scandinavian Economic History Review | Year: 2014

This paper presents annual Swedish time series data on the top marginal tax wedge and marginal tax wedges on labour income for a low-, average- and high-income earner for the period 1862-2010. These data are unique in their consistency, thoroughness and timespan covered. We identify four distinct periods separated by major tax reforms. The tax system can be depicted as proportional, with low tax wedges until the Second World War. Next follows a period featuring increasing tax wedges. During the third period, starting with the 1971 tax reform and continuing throughout the 1980s, the efforts to redistribute income culminated and tax wedges peaked. The high-income earner started to pay the top marginal tax wedge which could be as high as almost 90%. The main explanations for this development are temporary crises leading to permanent tax increases, expansion of the public sector, distributional ambitions, increased local taxes, bracket-creep and the introduction of social security contributions paid by employers. The 1990-1991 tax reform represents the beginning of a new and still continuing period with decreasing marginal tax wedges. © 2013 The Author(s). Published by Routledge. Source

Bergman M.A.,Sodertorn University College | Bergman M.A.,HUI Research | Granlund D.,Umea University | Rudholm N.,HUI Research | Rudholm N.,Dalarna University
International Journal of Health Economics and Management | Year: 2016

In 2009 and 2010, the Swedish pharmaceuticals market was reformed. One of the stated policy goals was to achieve low costs for pharmaceutical products dispensed in Sweden. We use price and sales data for off-patent brand-name and generic pharmaceuticals to estimate a log-linear regression model, allowing us to assess how the policy changes affected the cost per defined daily dose. The estimated effect is an 18 % cost reduction per defined daily dose at the retail level and a 34 % reduction in the prices at the wholesale level (pharmacies’ purchase prices). The empirical results suggest that the cost reductions were caused by the introduction of a price cap, an obligation to dispense the lowest-cost generic substitute available in the whole Swedish market, and the introduction of well-defined exchange groups. The reforms thus reduced the cost per defined daily dose for consumers while being advantageous also for the pharmacies, who saw their retail margins increase. However, pharmaceutical firms supplying off-patent pharmaceuticals experienced a clear reduction in the price received for their products. © 2016, Springer Science+Business Media New York. Source

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