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Guo X.,Inner Mongolia Agricultural University | Yan S.,Inner Mongolia Agricultural University | Shi B.,Inner Mongolia Agricultural University | Feng Y.,Huhhot Vocational College
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences

This study was conducted to determine the effects of excess vitamin A on alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, contents of calcium-binding protein (CaBP), bone gla-protein (BGP) in culture medium and CaBP mRNA expression in chicken osteoblasts in vitro. Osteoblastic cells in the tibia from 1-day-old Arbor Acre broiler chickens were isolated using enzyme digestion. The subconfluenced cells were divided into eight treatments with six replicates in each treatment and cultured in a medium containing either vehicle or different levels of vitamin A (0, 0.2, 0.6, 1.0, 2.0, 5.0, 10.0 and 20.0 μg/ml), and the control received an equivalent volume of ethanol. The incubation lasted 48 h. The results showed that vitamin A down-regulated ALP activity in the culture medium as well as CaBP mRNA expression of osteoblasts in a linear dose-dependent manner (p = 0.124 and p<0.10, respectively), and suppressed the contents of BGP and CaBP in the culture medium in a quadratic dose-dependent manner (p<0.05 and p<0.10, respectively) with increasing addition of vitamin A. The addition of 0-0.2 μg/ml vitamin A to the culture medium increased ALP activity, BGP and CaBP contents as well as CaBP mRNA expression compared with other groups, but positive effects of vitamin A tended to be suppressed when vitamin A was increased to 1.0 μg/ml, and adverse effects occurred when vitamin A was increased to 10.0-20.0 μg/ml. These results implied that there was a threshold level of vitamin A inclusion beyond which inhibitory effects occurred, and the mechanism by which overdose of vitamin A reduced bone growth in chickens was probably reduced osteoblastic cell activity, and inhibited expression of CaBP mRNA and CaBP secretion. Source

Guo J.,Huhhot Vocational College | Li C.,Inner Mongolia University | Hu C.,Huhhot Vocational College | Shen Y.,Huhhot Vocational College
Chemistry Bulletin / Huaxue Tongbao

The electron structure of normal oxygen molecule in 3∑ state, superoxide anion, superoxide ion, hydroxyl and singlet oxygen in 1δ or 1∑ state are described by simple molecular orbital theory. They can transform to stable H2O2 which have strong oxidizing property. The different electronic structure of common basic group OH- and hydroxyl radical are described, too. It explained why the hydroxyl radical has strong oxidizing ability whereas OH- is in a stable state. All of mentioned species with strong oxidizing abilities are named reactive oxygen species (ROS), they are relating to the pathogenesis of several diseases. Although excessive ROS will be harmful for health, low level of ROS is necessary for human life. Cerium oxide nanoparticle (CONPs) is an excellent free-redical scavenger; the pro-oxidant activity of it drives radiation-induced H2O2 production selectively in pancreatic cancer cells resulting in radiation sensitization to apoptotic death and growth inhibition while the normal cells and tissue are protected. These results identify CONPs as a potentially novel radiation sensitizer for the treatment of human pancreatic cancer. Source

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