News Article | May 8, 2017
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Koo E.,Los Alamos National Laboratory |
Pagni P.J.,University of California at Berkeley |
Weise D.R.,U.S. Department of Agriculture |
Woycheese J.P.,Hughes Associates, Inc.
International Journal of Wildland Fire | Year: 2010
Spotting ignition by lofted firebrands is a significant mechanism of fire spread, as observed in many large-scale fires. The role of firebrands in fire propagation and the important parameters involved in spot fire development are studied. Historical large-scale fires, including wind-driven urban and wildland conflagrations and post-earthquake fires are given as examples. In addition, research on firebrand behaviour is reviewed. The phenomenon of spotting fires comprises three sequential mechanisms: generation, transport and ignition of recipient fuel. In order to understand these mechanisms, many experiments have been performed, such as measuring drag on firebrands, analysing the flow fields of flame and plume structures, collecting firebrands from burning materials, houses and wildfires, and observing firebrand burning characteristics in wind tunnels under the terminal velocity condition and ignition characteristics of fuel beds. The knowledge obtained from the experiments was used to develop firebrand models. Since Tarifa developed a firebrand model based on the terminal velocity approximation, many firebrand transport models have been developed to predict maximum spot fire distance. Combustion models of a firebrand were developed empirically and the maximum spot fire distance was found at the burnout limit. Recommendations for future research and development are provided. © 2010 IAWF.
Budnick E.K.,Hughes Associates, Inc.
Journal of Fire Protection Engineering | Year: 2011
General Services Administration's (GSA) Goal-Oriented Systems Approach to Building Fire safety developed by Harold E. Bud Nelson is presented. The underlying structure of the Goal-Oriented Fire safety Systems Approach is a conventional decision/logic tree. Two types of logic gates were used to show hierarchical relationships among the parameters in the tree. The GSA method has both qualitative and quantitative aspects. The qualitative component was associated with use of the decision tree as an overall guide for fire protection planning. The quantitative component relies on deterministic knowledge and probability estimates to propagate probabilistic estimates of success through selected branches of the tree where such knowledge can be estimated. A final measure of fire safety, referred to by Nelson as L-Curve, is determined based on a series of probability calculations for key branches in the decision tree. The L-curve is developed based on calculation of the cumulative probability at each module and at each barrier.
Gwynne S.M.V.,Hughes Associates, Inc.
Fire and Materials | Year: 2012
Data are essential to the understanding of human behaviour in fire. Human egress data-sets are scarce, and those currently available are relatively narrow in scope, from varied sources, inconsistently described and frequently several decades old. This paper describes a framework for the storage and presentation of human egress data. This work has been conducted as part of a project funded by the National Institute of Standards and Technology and, as a result, a central repository of data will be created that provides tools to facilitate the storage, representation and access to the data needed for researchers and engineers alike. When fully implemented, this framework (in the form of a Data Portal) will better inform the use of the data available and make accessing this data more convenient. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Siddiqui A.A.,University of Greenwich |
Gwynne S.M.V.,Hughes Associates, Inc.
Safety Science | Year: 2012
Simulation tools are often used to establish pedestrian and evacuee performance. The accuracy and reliability of such tools are dependent upon their ability to qualitatively and quantitatively capture the outcome of this performance; i.e. whether the simulated agents perform the expected acts and take the expected amount of time to complete them. This article investigates the relationship between simulating individual agent actions and generating reliable emergent conditions (e.g. congestion). Once this relationship is established for a particular tool, it can then be used to investigate the conditions that may emerge in certain scenarios and mitigate against them. This article presents a simple framework for categorising real-world observations and then translating these observations into the simulated environment - extracting key information from the data collected to configure the simulation tool as required. The article addresses the qualitative benefits of representing individual-level actions, and, to a lesser degree, the quantitative benefits, although this effort is limited given the nature of the data. It tests this relationship using observations made at the Hajj, specifically the Sa'ee where large numbers of pilgrims perform religious rites in concert. Several scenarios are simulated using the buildingEXODUS model, enabling the importance of individual-level behaviours upon emergent conditions to be investigated, even when simulating relatively large crowds of up to 15,000 people. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.
Trelles J.,Hughes Associates, Inc. |
Mawhinney J.R.,Hughes Associates, Inc.
Journal of Fire Protection Engineering | Year: 2010
A series of full-scale fire suppression tests was conducted at the San Pedro de Anes test tunnel facility near Gójon, Asturias, Spain in February 2006. The fuel was wooden pallets or a mixed load of wood and high density polyethylene pallets. Fire protection was provided by water mist systems in different configurations. Because of facility restrictions, some scenarios of great interest, such as a free burn fire, could not be investigated. However, in order to complement the experimental results, a number of computational fluid dynamics simulations were conducted on a 140 m section of the tunnel facility. The Fire Dynamics Simulator, version 4, was used for the numerical investigation. An algorithm was developed to allow the fire to spread along the top of a series of pallet loads in such a way that the measured heat release rate was reproduced. Verification and validation studies confirmed that the model predicted the measured ventilation speeds and peak temperatures. The agreement between the simulations and the field measurements was very good prior to activation of the water mist. Back-layering was modeled well. After activation of the mist, the simulations predicted a large drop in gas temperatures, and retreat of the back-layer, but under-predicted the thermal cooling by the water mist downstream of the fire. With the suppression system, high temperatures and heat fluxes were limited to the immediate vicinity of the burning pallets. The model was then used to simulate a free burn fire in the tunnel. The simulation demonstrated the catastrophic conditions created by an unsuppressed fire in a tunnel when compared against the thermally managed conditions under suppressed conditions. © 2010 Society of Fire Protection Engineers.
Floyd J.,Hughes Associates, Inc.
Fire Safety Science | Year: 2011
An HVAC network model was coupled to FDS v5.5. The HVAC model allows a user to specify the topology of an HVAC system along with dampers, fans, and forward/reverse flow loss through ducts and fittings. The model was indirectly coupled with the FDS flow solver. The HVAC model uses prior time step values as its boundary conditions and provides to FDS wall boundary conditions of temperature, velocity, and species for prediction of the next FDS time step. The current implementation does not account for transport times with the HVAC network. This paper describes the governing equations for the HVAC network model which is based upon the MELCOR, a nodal network model used for nuclear power plant containment buildings, solver. The specific numerical implementation of the equations within FDS is described. A series of verification exercises demonstrate that the network model correctly models HVAC flows and that its coupling with FDS maintains mass conservation. A simple and a complex validation exercise show that the combined solvers can accurately predict HVAC flows for a duct network in a complex geometry with fire effects © 2011 INTERNATIONAL ASSOCIATION FOR FIRE SAFETY SCIENCE.
Gwynne S.M.V.,Hughes Associates, Inc.
Fire Technology | Year: 2013
The analysis of human behavior in fire is a relatively young field, only existing for a matter of decades. For much of this time it was used to support the related engineering process, rather than as a significant pursuit in its own right-to provide support for the assumptions used by engineers, designers and by regulators. Prior to this point, the engineering process excluded the human response from the assessment process altogether. The field originally developed according to two principle objectives, both of which were tied to the practice of fire safety engineering: The ability to establish the importance of human performance and then the provision of key supporting evidence for engineering practice. In both instances, the development of the field was determined by engineering practice, rather than the generation of a comprehensive theory that helped to explain and predict phenomena. This evolution of the field has led to an incomplete, disorganized and disparate understanding of the subject matter: human performance in fire. The lifeblood of any field of study is data-data that bridges the gap between observation, understanding and application. This article, and the project on which it is based, represents an attempt to strengthen the data collection process, the representation of this data, and the dissemination of this data to interested parties; i. e., to strengthen the study of human performance in fire. This will be achieved through the provision of several tools (to aid the collection and presentation of data), that will be combined together in the form of an online data portal. This will benefit the field, allow the development of more refined and more comprehensive theories, and allow for better informed engineering activities. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.
Agency: Department of Defense | Branch: Navy | Program: SBIR | Phase: Phase I | Award Amount: 80.00K | Year: 2010
During Phase I, the feasibility of developing and implementing an innovative automated fire detection and targeting system that can suppress fires anywhere on a typical deckhouse will be demonstrated. During the program, performance requirements and metrics will be defined and used as the basis of the assessment. At least one conceptual design will be developed and assessed based on the previously define performance requirements. The assessment will identify the potential capabilities and limitations of the system for this application. A Plan of Action and Milestones (POA&M) will also be developed to support a Phase II effort. This POA&M will include both system development and evaluation plans contain discrete milestones for product development for verifying performance and suitability.
News Article | February 15, 2017
If you are a car owner and in search of affordable auto insurance in Ridgewood NY, then do not look beyond Hughes Associates, Inc., Insurance Agency. This agency will assist you in finding the best rates for auto insurance.