Utrecht, Netherlands
Utrecht, Netherlands

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De Esch C.E.F.,Erasmus Medical Center | Ghazvini M.,Erasmus Medical Center | Loos F.,Erasmus Medical Center | Schelling-Kazaryan N.,KNAW Hubrecht Institute | And 12 more authors.
Stem Cell Reports | Year: 2014

Silencing of the FMR1 gene leads to fragile X syndrome, the most common cause of inherited intellectual disability. To study the epigenetic modifications of the FMR1 gene during silencing in time, we used fibroblasts and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) of an unmethylated full mutation (uFM) individual with normal intelligence. The uFM fibroblast line carried an unmethylated FMR1 promoter region and expressed normal to slightly increased FMR1 mRNA levels. The FMR1 expression in the uFM line corresponds with the increased H3 acetylation and H3K4 methylation in combination with a reduced H3K9 methylation. After reprogramming, the FMR1 promoter region was methylated in all uFM iPSC clones. Two clones were analyzed further and showed a lack of FMR1 expression, whereas the presence of specific histone modifications also indicated a repressed FMR1 promoter. In conclusion, these findings demonstrate that the standard reprogramming procedure leads to epigenetic silencing of the fully mutated FMR1 gene. © 2014 The Authors.


D'Astolfo D.S.,KNAW Hubrecht Institute | D'Astolfo D.S.,University Utrecht | Pagliero R.J.,University Utrecht | Pras A.,KNAW Hubrecht Institute | And 9 more authors.
Cell | Year: 2015

Modulation of protein function is used to intervene in cellular processes but is often done indirectly by means of introducing DNA or mRNA encoding the effector protein. Thus far, direct intracellular delivery of proteins has remained challenging. We developed a method termed iTOP, for induced transduction by osmocytosis and propanebetaine, in which a combination of NaCl hypertonicity-induced macropinocytosis and a transduction compound (propanebetaine) induces the highly efficient transduction of proteins into a wide variety of primary cells. We demonstrate that iTOP is a useful tool in systems in which transient cell manipulation drives permanent cellular changes. As an example, we demonstrate that iTOP can mediate the delivery of recombinant Cas9 protein and short guide RNA, driving efficient gene targeting in a non-integrative manner. © 2015 Elsevier Inc.


PubMed | University Utrecht, University of Cincinnati and KNAW Hubrecht Institute
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Cell | Year: 2015

Modulation of protein function is used to intervene in cellular processes but is often done indirectly by means of introducing DNA or mRNA encoding the effector protein. Thus far, direct intracellular delivery of proteins has remained challenging. We developed a method termed iTOP, for induced transduction by osmocytosis and propanebetaine, in which a combination of NaCl hypertonicity-induced macropinocytosis and a transduction compound (propanebetaine) induces the highly efficient transduction of proteins into a wide variety of primary cells. We demonstrate that iTOP is a useful tool in systems in which transient cell manipulation drives permanent cellular changes. As an example, we demonstrate that iTOP can mediate the delivery of recombinant Cas9 protein and short guide RNA, driving efficient gene targeting in a non-integrative manner.

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