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Chen J.,Xiamen University | Hu W.-J.,Xiamen University | Wang C.,Chinese Institute of Urban Environment | Liu T.-W.,Xiamen University | And 5 more authors.
Crop Science | Year: 2014

Light-mediated greening is one of the most dramatic developmental processes in crops. Nitric oxide (NO), a signaling molecule, plays a critical role in crop growth and development. In this study, sodium nitroprusside (SNP), an NO donor, was found to significantly increase the chlorophyll content and photosynthetic activity during greening of etiolated barley seedlings. Improved chloroplast development was also observed. To better understand the promotion mechanism of NO in greening, differentially expressed proteins from barley seedlings with and without SNP treatment were investigated by proteomic analysis. Among more than 1000 protein spots separated, 85 of them were significantly changed by SNP treatment. Fifteen of these 85 protein spots were identified to be related to photosynthesis. In addition, a set of proteins, which are associated with metabolism, energy production and conversion, defense and development, signal transduction, hormones, transcription, and post-translation modification were also regulated by NO. Taken together, these results reveal a comprehensive protein network regulated by NO in greening and facilitate the understanding of NO signaling in greening of etiolated plants. © Crop Science Society of America.


Chen J.,Xiamen University | Chen J.,Duke University | Wu F.-H.,Xiamen University | Wu F.-H.,Duke University | And 9 more authors.
Environmental Pollution | Year: 2012

To assess the potential contribution of nitric oxide (NO) emission from the plants grown under the increasing nitrogen (N) deposition to atmospheric NO budget, the effects of simulated N deposition on NO emission and various leaf traits (e.g., specific leaf area, leaf N concentration, net photosynthetic rate, etc.) were investigated in 79 plant species classified by 13 plant functional groups. Simulated N deposition induced the significant increase of NO emission from most functional groups, especially from conifer, gymnosperm and C 3 herb. Moreover, the change rate of NO emission was significantly correlated with the change rate of various leaf traits. We conclude that the plants grown under atmospheric N deposition, especially in conifer, gymnosperm and C 3 herb, should be taken into account as an important biological source of NO and potentially contribute to atmospheric NO budget. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Hu W.-J.,Xiamen University | Chen J.,Xiamen University | Liu T.-W.,Xiamen University | Liu T.-W.,Huaiyin Normal University | And 6 more authors.
Nitric Oxide - Biology and Chemistry | Year: 2014

Nitric oxide (NO) as a ubiquitous signal molecule plays an important role in plant development and growth. Here, we compared the proteomic changes between NO-overproducing mutant (nox1) and wild-type (WT) of Arabidopsis thaliana using two-dimensional electrophoresis coupled with MALDI-TOF MS. We successfully identified 59 differentially expressed proteins in nox1 mutant, which are predicted to play potential roles in specific cellular processes, such as post-translational modification, energy production and conversion, metabolism, transcription and signal transduction, cell rescue and defense, development and differentiation. Particularly, expression levels of five anti-oxidative enzymes were altered by the mutation; and assays of their respective enzymatic activities indicated an enhanced level of oxidative stress in nox1 mutant. Finally, some important proteins were further confirmed at transcriptional level using quantitative real-time PCR revealing the systemic changes between WT and nox1. The result suggests that obvious morphological changes in the nox1 mutant may be regulated by different mechanisms and factors, while excess endogenous NO maybe one of the possible reasons.©2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


Chen J.,Xiamen University | Xiao Q.,Xiamen University | Xiao Q.,Hubei Institutes for Nationalities | Wu F.,Xiamen University | And 6 more authors.
Tree Physiology | Year: 2010

Modulation of nitric oxide (NO) on ion homeostasis, by enhancing salt secretion in the salt glands and Na+ sequestration into the vacuoles, was investigated in a salt-secreting mangrove tree, Avicennia marina (Forsk.) Vierh. The major results are as follows: (i) under 400 mM NaCl treatment, the application of 100 M sodium nitroprusside (SNP), an NO donor, significantly increased the density of salt crystals and salt secretion rate of the leaves, along with maintaining a low Na+ to K+ ratio in the leaves. (ii) The measurement of element contents by X-ray microanalysis in the epidermis and transversal sections of A. marina leaves revealed that SNP (100 M) significantly increased the accumulation of Na+ in the epidermis and hypodermal cells, particularly the Na+ to K+ ratio in the salt glands, but no such effects were observed in the mesophyll cells. (iii) Using non-invasive micro-test technology (NMT), both long-term SNP (100 M) and transient SNP (30 M) treatments significantly increased net Na+ efflux in the salt glands. On the contrary, NO synthesis inhibitors and scavenger reversed the effects of NO on Na+ flux. These results indicate that NO enhanced salt secretion by increasing net Na+ efflux in the salt glands. (iv) Western blot analysis demonstrated that 100 M SNP stimulated protein expressions of plasma membrane (PM) H+-ATPase and vacuolar membrane Na+/H+ antiporter. (v) To further clarify the molecular mechanism of the effects of NO on enhancing salt secretion and Na+ sequestration, partial cDNA fragments of PM H +-ATPase (HA1), PM Na+/H+ antiporter (SOS1) and vacuolar Na+/H+ antiporter (NHX1) were isolated and transcriptional expression of HA1, SOS1, NHX1 and vacuolar H+-ATPase subunit c (VHA-c1) genes were analyzed using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. The relative transcript abundance of the four genes were markedly increased in 100 M SNP-treated A. marina. Moreover, the increase was reversed by NO synthesis inhibitors and scavenger. Taken together, our results strongly suggest that NO functions as a signal in salt resistance of A. marina by enhancing salt secretion and Na+ sequestration, which depend on the increased expression of the H+-ATPase and Na+/H + antiporter. © The Author 2010. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.


Chen J.,Xiamen University | Xiao Q.,Xiamen University | Xiao Q.,Hubei Institutes for Nationalities | Wu Eh.,Xiamen University | And 5 more authors.
Plant, Soil and Environment | Year: 2010

Nitric oxide (NO) emission from detached barley leaves, roots and whole plants treated with various nitrate or nitrite concentrations under light/dark and aerobic/anaerobic conditions was quantified by using a chemiluminescence detector. NO emission from detached tissues and whole plants treated with moderate nitrate concentration (60mM) was relatively higher under anaerobic condition, and was positively correlated with nitrite concentration. Darkness and anaerobic condition remarkably induced NO emission from detached barley leaves. On the contrary, NO emission from detached roots and whole plants was relatively higher in light. As for whole plants treated with 60mM nitrate and 12mM nitrite, the pattern of NO emission in normal environment was broken by light-dark and aerobic-anaerobic transition. Light and anaerobic condition induced NO emission significantly in the whole plant. The whole barley plant emitted significantly higher amount of NO than detached leaves or roots.

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